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Lecture 3(2). PSY320H1FSeptember25th2012.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY320H1F: September 25 , 2012 Chapter 6 Exposure - Mere exposure effect (Zajonc, 1968): repeated, simple exposure to an object leads to more favourable feelings toward that object  Effect diminished somewhat at higher exposure levels, but overall effect was powerful  Works on initially neutral or liked objects  Significantly weaker following exposure to disliked objects; participants exhibited lower likings to initially disliked objects after higher exposure than lower exposure  Works for both liked and disliked objects, but weaker for the latter  Weisbuch, Mackie, & Garcia-Marques (2003): mere exposure to the source of a persuasive message increases agreement with the message, but only when people are not made aware of their prior exposure - Bornstein (1989): the mere exposure effect is:  Strongest when the stimuli are complex, presented a limited number of times, interspersed among other stimuli, and presented for short durations  Weakest when the stimuli are simple, presented many times, isolated from other stimuli, and presented for long durations - Two Factor Model (Berlyne, 1970):  Habituation: people get used to “threatening” novel stimuli and perceive it as less threatening  affective reactions become more positive  Boredom: people become bored with the stimuli ∴ repeated exposure  negative affective reaction  Supporting evidence:  High on boredom proneness  less likely to show a mere exposure effect  Evident only among people low in tolerance for ambiguity  habituation drives the mere exposure effect  Contradicting evidence:  Mere exposure effect happens with subliminal presentation, in fact, studies using subliminal stimuli show the largest effect - Modified Two Factor Model (Bornstein, 1989):  Habituation can occur through both conscious and non-conscious processing of stimuli  Conscious: recognition of a stimulus reduces uncertainty about the stimulus  Non-conscious: people may find it easier to process an object that has been the object of implicit learning through subliminal exposure  perceptual fluency  feelings of certainty and familiarity  automatic positive affect  Supporting evidence:  People can like an object if they think they have seen it many times before  Stronger among people who tend to experience high levels of negative affect and low levels of positive affect  No reduction in negative feelings after exposure, just an increase in positive feelings  Repeated subliminal  more positive mood to and more liking of similar stimuli PSY320H1F: September 25 , 2012  Exposure creates some general positive affect - Mere exposure and prejudice (Smith et al, 2008):  Repeatedly exposing White students to White faces  increased positivity of attitudes toward Whites and increased negativity of attitudes toward Blacks Emotion Learning - Involves exposure to an attitude object that is accompanied by events that have emotional consequences 1. Exposure conditioning: repeated presentation of an attitude object paired with an affective sensation; also labeled affective/evaluative conditioning  Similar to classical conditioning besides that the US in exposure conditioning is presumed to evoke an internal affective response rather than a behavioural response  Razran: free lunch study vs. foul odours  Rated the slogans presented while they are eating the free lunch more positively  mapped their affective reactions to the free food onto their reactions to the slogan  Could not remember which statements they have seen while eating  effected opinions unconsciously  Explains how different evaluative words can come to imply particular attitudes  Children learned good=positive and bad=negative  shape attitudes toward other things labeled as good or bad  Krosnick et al. (1992):  Participants who were subliminally presented with the positive images liked the unknown person more  Also effected the perception of the unknown person’s personality and physical attractiveness  Olsen & Fazio (2006):  Repeated exposure to Blacks with positive words and Whites with negative words  More favourable attitudes toward Blacks than those in control condition  Also evident in evaluative priming measure administered two days later  Altered attitudes that existed before the experiment  Evaluative conditioning influenced attitude change, not just attitude formation - Houwer et al. (2001):  Attitudes formed are resistant to change from extinction procedures  More dependent on absolute numbers of presentations of the CS with the US than on the proportion of times they are together  effective even when CS and US occur together for only a fraction of the time  Do not depend on the conscious awareness of the link between CS and US  Can occur in conditions in which classical conditioning does not normally occur  Vital emotional process for understanding attitude formation and change 2. Behaviour conditioning: pairs an emotion with a behaviour that has been performed - Inskos et al.:  Randomly called some university students to answer a survey about pay television PSY320H1F: September 25 , 2012  Conditions:  Researcher said “good” after the student gave positive responses  Researcher said “good” after the student gave negative responses  Findings:  Participants indicated more positive attitudes after
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