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Lecture 5(1). PSY320H1FOctober9th2012.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY320H1F: October 9 , 2012 Chapter 8 Basic Principles of Persuasion I. Influence by Silly Things - Attitudes can be influenced by information that has, at best, a weak relevance to the attitude object  Physical attractiveness of the source  Mood  People may remain favourable even after learning that the desirable consequence will not occur  by the time of the learning, already came up with other reasons to like the attitude object  Rate of speech  Humour  Number of arguments  Citations of consensus  Positive vs. negative framing of attributes: merely involve showing the same attribute in two different ways - Variables that shape attitudes can seem more or less relevant to the attitude, falling along a continuum from high to low relevance  Sometimes silly things may not be completely irrelevant (Ex. shampoo ads) - May also be individual and cultural differences in what we believe to be relevant information II. Influence by Motivation and Ability - The relative impact of weak information can be reduced when people possess high motivation and the ability to form a correct attitude, except when the relevant information is difficult to interpret and the irrelevant information is difficult to identify  ELM: motivation + able  attempt to correct for the potential impact of extraneous information on their attitudes and beliefs  Unimodel: a deep consideration of the information may cause the relevant information to override the impact of the irrelevant information, particularly when irrelevant information is difficult to process - HOWEVER, the motivation to be correct can cause the use of irrelevant information on occasion  HSM: motivated to form a correct attitude + all of the relevant information are ambiguous/contradictory  uses less relevant information  Overinterpretation of irrelevant evidence - Confidence in self-concept  more open-minded about ideas that challenge their views  use more relevant information  Self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988): a high sense of self-integrity enables people to be more open-minded about possible threats without feeling that their self-integrity would suffer from being wrong  Sherman, Nelson, & Steele (2002):caffeine experiment 1) Asked women to read an article describing a link between caffeine consumption and fibrocystic disease Coffee drinkers (high relevance) vs. Non-coffee drinkers (low relevance) PSY320H1F: October 9 , 2012 2) Affirmation condition: affirmed their self-integrity by completing a measure focusing on social values they strongly care about No-affirmation condition: completed a measure focusing on a less important value 3) Completed measures assessing their acceptance of the article and intentions to change their behaviour  Findings: No-affirmation condition: drinkers were more defensive and less accepting than the non-drinkers Affirmation condition: drinkers were more accepting than the non-drinkers; more willing to reduce their coffee-drinking  Limitations: Focused on novel threats, not threats that people already know how to deal with III. Influence by a Common Language - Attitude change partly depends on whether message emphasizes the content, structure, or function that are the basis for the recipient’s own attitude - Seminal theory (Hovland, Janis, & Kelley, 1953): persuasive messages are more effective when they provide an incentive for attitude change  Incentive is more likely to occur when people detect a match between the thrust of an appeal and the basis of their attitude  Matches to attitude content, attitude structure, or attitude function - Content match:  Edwards (1990):  Created a new attitude toward the fictitious drink “Power-Plus” 1) Participants were exposed to both affective and cognitive positive information about the drink  Assumption: attitude based most strongly on the type of information received first 2) Given negative affective and cognitive information  Assumption: attitude based most strongly on the type of information received first  Findings:  Affect-based appeal elicited significantly more change in attitude that were affect-based  Cognitive-based appeal elicited somewhat more (not significantly) change in attitude that were cognitive-based  People differ in the extent that their attitudes are generally based on affective and cognitive information  Strong affective intervention  more attitude change among those whose attitudes are affect0base
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