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PSY320H1 (24)

Lecture on Attitude Theories and Models

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University of Toronto St. George
Dax Urbszat

Sampling Samples: representation of the population Sampling error : difference btw attitude in sample and attitude in population (larger the sample, smaller the sampling error; does not decrease linearly (by less and less; diminishing return) Population size: large samples do not guarantee accuracy Example of Literary Digest Fiasco : US presidential elections poll -> failed: sample was NOT representative bc phone books and car registration in 1936 were mostly rich republican (underestimated democratic votes) (Gallups sampling procedure was more perfect random sample) Simple random sampling: every person in the population gets the same chance to be selected Stratified random sampling: not as good as simple random (randomly select half the population first so that the other half is completely removed from the beginning) Survey: results are quite accurate, lots of relationships btw variables compared to experiments Intercept interview: convenience samples (ie: PSY100 students), non-scientific, researcher bias & too much control (is PSY100 generalized? = just out of high school = same as average population; perhaps going to university makes you less prejudiced and biased Mail survey : low cost, long history, low response rate (use a guilt technique to improve) Face-to-face survey: time and money cost but highest response rate Telephone survey: most popular, most ppl have phones so less biased (for unlisted numbers, use Random-digit dialing (RDD) or Digit-plus procedure) Intra-attitudinal structure 1) Unidimensional: until 1960s, attitude was viewed as affective (emotional) response to objects; semantic differential 2) Bidimensional: affective and cognitive (emotions are derived from a combination
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