Core and basic because form underlying factors or groups when we look at for example English
language lexicon and don’t get anything basic then these five groups, are dinstict because when
correlate them with each other we find the correlations are very low suggesting these are
independent of each other, separate and capture different aspects of human personality. More
commonly known as the bug five.
Associated with underlying facets- subgroups of the basic traits.
Looked to see if scores clustered together in groups. Results they do into five dimensions. Took
existing personality inventories how well the groups in terms of English lexicon .
Found high level of consistency between underlying dimensions and structure of existing
questionnaire. Creation of five factor model of personality.
Example : NEO Personality- 240 items that assessed those five factors that underlie personality.
NEO 3. equipped with measures of personality, 5 equally validated and reliable across cultures.
-5 factors are universal ie/ one problem with using surveys because survery measure of
personality to make meaningful compairsons is finding results between compairsons with no
variable that has meaning. Two culture difer from extraversion and conclude that evidence of
extraversion is different but cultures differ in response styles. They may be biased to circling the
extreme and other cultures experience a modesty bias where they will circle on rating scales
toward the middle. Good news- in terms of substantial literature, influenc eon response styles are
taken into account there are still evidence of these five factors. Control for geography location
there is still support for universality. Ie/ distance from equator still evidence that these five
factors are universal.
Stereotype of canadain: they are polite is a national character. Typical personality type. These
individauls in the nation share that modal personality type.
They are stereotypes.
Armed with well validated measures of these personalities are these stereotypes correct?
Research conducted studies in which they have assed these steretoypes, and administered NEO
to members of these different cultures to see a correlation. Found if look at aggregate levels of
personality, little to no correlation to personality traits and national characters. These national
characters are incorrect and pervasive and stil used. Why? Stereotypes are mental shortcuts,
mental framework to make quick judgements about other people. Characteristics most salient to
us when judging observable characteristics. Visible characteristics that people have to make
quick judgements to guide how to interact. Facilitating social interaction in people in cultures.
People within a culture share a nation character can provide a support of self scheme. Deelop and
promote a group identity, national identity. Can help validate who you are and who you are,
affirm and reaffirm who your group is, have bonds between people and self esteem functions.
National character do not reflect still serve purposeful stuff.
Why we have these five factors.Accordign to the theory two components: basic tendencies and
Also the self concept which is an example of characteristic adaptation. Basic tendency: biological basis, hardware that predisposes individual to respond to their
environment in particular ways which are consistent given a aprticular environment..Are
predicatable. To one extent represent biological based of responding to the environment in a
particular predicatable way.
Evidence supports this way from basis tendency that come from studies of genetic basis. Ex/
twin studies show identical that reared apart, adopted by different people, are more similar in
terms of big five traits compared to fraternal twins reared together in the same environment.
Identical twins share 100% of their same genes. When share similar personality traits cannot be
of environment must be genes. Fraternal twins share 50% if find that similar to each other cannot
be of genes so explain by wht they share in environment but relationship between identical twins
reared apart is stronger than twin sreared in the same environment. So strong genetic basis of
personality, further evidence of universal set core of personality traits, to get universality is by
sharing underlying genetic predispositions.
Research using non primates that support the five factor theory. Evidence that we share basic
Stem form core psychological traits. Adaptations because underlying core allows for individual
to fit in ever changing environments.
These basic tendency produce different ways we repond and adapt to environment.
-strongly influenced by culture not biologically produced.
-people have to be able to adapt to thse different sources of culture.
Five factor theory- have them because to allow us to adapt to these different context these
environments which allow us to respond to these environment in certain predicatable ways.
Evolutionary basis: then neuroticism would have disappeared from the gene pool but hasn’t
because has certain advantages. Asurvival advantage.
Helps us to mobilize…
Moderating emotional states.
Approach certain stimuli or avoid
-helps to regulate arousal levels which is advantage to human ancestors that better adapt to
certain stimuli ie/ ateable food.Avoid dangerious stimuli and be more likely to survive so
Nerutoicm still exists.
All of which personality can be described