Exists across culture, uses for same purpose, and use to same degree so equally accessible
Social facilitation-finding that people typical to better on easy tasks when in presence of others
and worse on complex tasks.
Develops early and seen in other species, ants. Used in same way and exists and used in same
degree, always occurs
• Accessible to the same degree across cultures
• Ex. Social facilitation
• Functional universal
• Exists in multiple cultures, used in the same way
across cultures, but more accessible to some
• Ex.Attraction to similarity, use of punishment
• Punishing for violating rules or justice.
• Used for same purpose as a sanction across cultures. However some cultures use
punishment more often so cultures differ in how much they use.
• Atraction to sim: similar belief, attitudes attract together. Used in same way to form
social bonds. Differ in intrapersonal attraction, focus on other qualities.
• Different types of evidence that suggests a process is universal
• Existential universal
• Exist in multiple cultures but is not used in the same
way across cultures nor equally accessible to the
same degree across cultures
• Ex. Intrinsic motivation and success/failure