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PSY321H1 (13)
Nick Rule (6)


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University of Toronto St. George
Nick Rule

INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION, CLOSE RELATIONSHIP AND GROUPS INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION ★UNIVERSALS - clear complexion, unclear complexion - bilateral symmetry: - developmental stability; given ideal growing conditions, an organismʼs right and left sides will develop identically - genetic mutations/pollution/stresses/pathogens encountered in the womb can lead to organisms to develop in slightly asymmetrical ways - more asymmetrical, more likely to have genetic mutations/develop in less than ideal circumstances - average features - ppl w/ avg sized features are less likely to have genetic abnormalities than ppl w/ deviant features - we can quickly process something that resembles a prototype & quick processing is associated w/ good feelings & feelings of attraction - avg faces can be thought of as prototype of faces • Study: - used various morphs of diff races - Euro. Australian and Japanese faces were avgʼd together both within and across cultures; Eurasian faces were also avgʼd - ps in both cultures viewed the avg faces to be the most attractive regardless of the facesʼ culture of origin - avgʼd Eurasian/biracial faces were the most attractive face of all ★CULTURAL SPECIFICS • ideal (female) body type - differences b/w culture - ideal body weight preferred by many culture within Africa are for heavier body weights for both men/women - w. africa, term “fat” complement - USA: African A. have heavier ideal body weights than Euro-A & feel less social pressure towards thinness - changes over time - US: vast diff., 1950s & today - influenced by many things, including media - attractiveness = both universals & cultural specifics • OTHER BASES OF INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION? - Propinquity Effect: ppl who interact often, likely to become friends - Study: - recruits to police academy - new recruits organized alphabetically (seat in class, dorm rooms) - ppl whoʼs names were closer in the alphabet, liked each other more - 45% of all friendships were among those whose last names were adjacent to the chooserʼs name in alphabetical order & the majority of the other friendships were w/ ppl whose last names were within a few letters of the chooserʼs last name - alphabet predicted friendships - Mere Exposure Effect: - the more weʼre exposed to stimuli, more attracted to/like it - attraction to a freq encountered stimuli appears to be due to the pleasant associations that we developed through classical condition - learn stimulus is non-threatening, pleasant effect of easy to process stimuli - appears to be a cultural universal - Japanese/Am. appear to be =lly likely to come to like ppl w/ whom they interact w/ often - even chickens more attracted to chickens they had been exposed to most - Similarity Attraction Effects: - ppl attracted to those like themselves. Is this universal? - Study: - compared Japanese and Canadians - ps came into a lab & briefly met a stranger of the same sex/nationality - went into a separate room and completed either a personality/social background measure - ps shown personality/social background measure of stranger; profiles made to be highly similar to the ps - Japanese: their liking for a stranger was unaffected by their apparent similarity - Canadian: showed much evidence of the similarity attraction effect - CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS - relationships at core of all human experience across cultures - within our universal sociality, is there cultural variability? • Friends and Enemies - do you have enemies (wishing your downfall/sabotaging your progress)? - Americans, yes, 26%: more likely to view enemies as coming from outside of their group - Ghanians, yes, 71%: more likely to view enemies as coming from their ingroup - ppl form relationships for different reasons •Independent -> US - perceive self as being fundamentally disconnected from others - default = no relationship - entered voluntarily - no relationship develops unless independent individuals see a benefit to themselves - ppl have freedom to move b/w relationships - high relational mobility: their relational ties are flexible enough & opportunities for new relationships are available enough •Interdependent (Ghana) - self is primarily defined on the basis of oneʼs close relationships - ingroup relationships are not chosen they are perceived to exist by default - default = relationship - personʼs relationship tied to their interpersonal networks within which one exists - low relational mobility: perceive that they have few opportunities to form ne
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