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PSY321H1 (13)
Nick Rule (6)
Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY321H1
Professor
Nick Rule
Semester
Fall

Description
MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH Keisuke - appeared normal at 14 - one day went into kitchen .. and refused to leave - 1.2 million Japanese suffer from Hikikomori (social withdrawal problem) - mostly happens to boys in HS age (stay in their houses, reading books, playing video games) - culture plays a big role in expression and role of pyshopathology WHAT IS A PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER • DMSN IV defʼn includes - causes distres - maladaptive - irrational - rate - violation of social norms - CULTURAL RELATIVISM OF MENTAL DISORDERS CAUSES PROBLEMS FOR DSM - similar to physical illnesses, there ae mental disorders that are expressed in similar ways • Mental Health - culture bound syndromes - hikikomori - Japan - Dhat (India): young men believe theyʼre leaking semen, and causes anxiety/guilt - Bulimia & Anorexia Nervosa (North America) - most commonly found in NA than anywhere else; AN expressed diff across cultures, fear of being fat not present in hong kong. Bulimia culture bound, and AN might be existential - Koro (East Asia): oneʼs penis are shrinking into a personʼs body, experience characterize by intense anxiety/terror; epidemic in Singapore for thousands hospitilized for koro b/c they ate pigs infected w/ swine flu; west africa, states (pot smokers) - Amok (Malaysia): acute outburst of unrestrained bias and indiscriminant killing followed by intense exhaustion/amnesia; ended up dying b/c they did something too crazy; most common in men; causes by inadequate sleep, drinking, stress. Norm of ppl being non-confrontational so itʼs expressed in this way - voodoo death (Africa) - ppl believe theyʼve been cursed; fear is so crippling itʼs often fatal - Latah (SE Asia) - enter transient/dissasociative state after being tickled or seeing something scary; do inappropriate things; donʼt have any memory - malgri (Australian aboriginals): terriotorial anxiety, feel like theyʼre invaded by spirits if they donʼt engage in the correct - frigophobia (China): fear of catching a cold - ataques de nervios (puerto rico) - emotional events might lead to physiological symptoms (numbness) - arctic hysteria (inuit) - screaming, repeating words over and over again, insenstitivyt to extreme cold - highlight diversity of human behaviour - Universal Syndromes: - manifest in diff ways across cultures - highlights bio foundation of mental illness - symptom manifestation can vary - Depression: - most common - major depressive disorder: at least one of depressed mood or inability to feel pleasure - and at least four of: change in weight/appetite, sleep problems, loss of energy, psychomotor chage, poor concentration, feelings of worthlessness, suicidal (thoughts or behavuours) - found in every culture studied - depression rates vary across culture (China=1/5 of US) - symptoms manifest differently: - US: more psych - China: more somatic - reasons: social stigma, selective attention, actually experienced differently - experience depression in the same way but discuss it differently - pay attention to diff symptoms (experiencing depression in the way but differing in the symptoms that we are attuned to) - westerners more sensitive to emotions than asians - possibility that symptoms experiences differently - mind and body relationship: chinese medicine views mind and body as related - Social Anxiety Disorder: - fear of being acting inept/unacceptably, leading to disaster social consequences - higher social anxiety in east asia - in one study, measure of interdependence was statistically identical w/ social anxiety - AA report more anxiety symptoms than EA in questionnaires - tendencies towards independence/interdependence lead to lower social anxiety - prevalent lvls of SAD in EA countries are lower than in - manifest in different ways: - Tajin Kyuofushou (TKS) vs. SAD - TKS - altruistic phobia, more prevalent in Japan, bodily aspect feared, more common in men, may be culture bound - concern for other people s - SAD - social aspect feared, more common in women, seen as disorder in west - - Suicide - tragic consequence of mental illness - easy to compare across cultures - motivation & rates vary considerably: culture and age - no suicide in Egypt and other Muslim countries b/c of religion - spike in Micronesia (north east of australia) -> adolescent suicide rate is very high; hung themselves; ritualistic behav in culture; disintegration of traditional culture b/c of weste
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