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Lecture 8

PSY 322 Lecture 8.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Alison Chasteen

Lecture 8: Stereotype Threat (ST)  Black/White IQ distribution: Whites have higher IQ?  Group differences in IZ as a product of prejudice?  Genetic explanation: Nature  Environmental explanation: Nurture  Situational explanation: Stereotype Threat  Stereotype Threat:  Stereotypes exist about most groups  Anything one does or any of one’s features that conform to a stereotype lend weight to the stereotype  Stereotype threat the threat of possibly being judged and threated stereotypically, or of possibility self-fulfilling such a stereotype  Ironic – the threat interferes the very stereotype in such a way that you confirm the very stereotype you were afraid of confirming in the first place  Early Empirical Work on ST  Focus on academic achievement discrepancies between Black and white students  Katz: How did desegregation affect Black students? When Black and White students started attending schools together  Black students perform better on an IQ test when: 1. They believe their performance will be compared when other Black students as opposed to other White students. One way for stigmatized groups to feel better about themselves is to compare with their own in-group. 2. Test is framed as a test of hand-eye co0ordination  Limitations: No white group 1) Steele and Aronson (1995)  Can academic discrepancies between Black and white students be made to appear and disappear by manipulating g ST  Hypothesis 1. ST: black students worse than White 2. NO ST: Black and White perform equally well 3. ST manipulation Test either framed as diagnostic or non-diagnostic of academic ability 4. Participants: Black and White undergraduates at Stanford. (VERY smart!)  Conditions: 1. ST (diagnostic): the test is a genuine test of your verbal abilities and limitations 2. No ST (non-diagnostic): the test will help us to better understand the psychological factors in solving verbal problems  Dependent Measures: test performances, self-measures  Results Study 1: In ND conditions, blacks and white do equally well. In D conditions, blacks do worse than whites. No stereotypes lift effect.  Who is affected by ST?  Women are thought to be bad at math and science 2) Spencer et al  Does ST contribute to the relative underperformance of women in math  Hypothesis:  ST: female do worse than males  NO ST: female do equally well as males  Independent variables: 2 by 2 (diagnostic or non-diagnostic vs. men or women)  Results:  Study 2: When it is ND, women and men do equally well, when it is D women do worse than men in math test. Men in the D condition they also perform better than the men in the ND condition  stereotype lift  Females represent a small minority of students and researcher in natural and physical sciences  35% of physics , math and computer science undergraduates  16% of engineering undergraduates  Less than 10% of graduate students in physics and engineering in females  Simply being outnumbered may lead females to suffer ST 3) Inzlicht and Ben-Zeev:  Does being out-numbered lead females to suffer from ST?  Participants: Female graduates  Study 1: Female students took math vs. verbal test. They are either in the minority (2 males and 1 female) or in the same gender group (3 females)  Results study 1: There is no condition difference in the females in the case of verbal tests – it does not matter whether the women were in the minority or in the same gender. The women are not affected stereotypically by the verbal test. In the math test, women do better in the same gender condition than the minority condition.  Study 2: Added another mixed condition (1 males and 2 females)  Results study 2: Women did the worst in the minority condition, and they did the best in the no male condition. Having 1 male in the room they are in the medium. Minority < 1 male < same gender  Proportion of in-group and out-group members in-group and out-group members in an environment can affect intellectual performance  Small, seemingly harmless changes can gave a big impact on intellectual  Multiple Group Identities:  Positive vs. Negative stereotype Threat  Can positive stereotypes also be threatening?  Will people choke under pressure if they feel the need to confirm a positive stereotype  Paradigm: use people with multiple IDS: Asian females 4) Shih et al (1999):  Do positive stereotypes improve performance  Prime: Female, Asian, Control (residence life survey)  Math test  Results: Asian women who were primed of their Asian identity did the best on their math test, and then the control group and the Asian women who were primed of their women identity did the worse in the math test. 5) Bodenhausen and Cheryan (2000)  Thought priming was too subtle-need to increase salience of Asian stereotype  Primes: Asian, female , control  Ps completed collective self-esteem scale, should make group-based performance expectancies more salient  Completed math test  Results: Choking effect. When primed with Asian stereotype, they did the worst compared to the control condition. Ps who were primed with the female stereotype
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