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Lecture 9

PSY322 Lecture 9.docx

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Alison Chasteen

PSY Lecture 9: Sexual Orientation Ageism Fiske Prejudice Model:  4 types of types based on competence and warmth.  Warmth:  Prejudice: 1. Incompetent but warmth  Low status, not competitive  Results in paternalistic prejudice  A condescending treatment. Talking down to, not taking them seriously but NO hostility.  Warm feelings but do not respect them as much.  E.g. elderly, disabled and housewives. 2. Incompetent and not warm  Low in status, competitive  Results in contemptuous prejudice  Welfare, poor people 3. Competent but not warm  High status, competitive  Results in Envious prejudice  Jews, Asians, Feminists, Wealthy people. 4. Competent and warm  High in warmth, no competition  In-groups and close allies. Admiration  Stereotypes of Working Moms  Fiske et al 2004  How are working moms viewed compared to working ads and working women without children  Ps rated fictional targets: Competence, warmth, likelihood of professional rewards  Target: either male/female with a child or not  Predictions:  Working moms would be viewed as housewives are viewed: warm but incompetent  Working moms warmer but less competent than working women without kids  Fewer professional rewards for working moms  Results:  Working moms are rated as the warmest and incompetent  Working moms are rated as warmer than lower in competence than working women without kids.  Working moms were the least likely to receive rewards.  Working dads are rated the same competence and warmer and more likely to receive awards than working man without children.  Working Dads: admiration  Working Moms: paternalistic prejudice.  Implications:  Women accounted for only 14.4% of executive positions  Women continue to earn less than men. The ratio is 81:100. Sexism:  Old-fashioned sexism  Endorse in traditional gender roles and gender stereotypes  Believe in different treatment of men and women  Modern seism  Less blatant, denial of discrimination against women  Non-support of programs and legislation to help women  Benevolent vs. Hostile  Benevolent: positive but stereotyped views, paternalistic prejudice.  Hostile: negative attitudes. Belief in inferiority and incompetence  Canada rankings out of 135 countries:  Overall for women: 18  Econmic:10  Education: 31  Political: 26  Health and survival: 49  Iceland has the least gender gap difference, Scandinavian countries.  Other Signs of Sexism: Sports  University Sports in Canada  Men make up only 44% student body by have 56% of the varsity sport opportunities  Women make up 56% of students and enjoy only 444 of sports on varsity teas  Olympic Sports  After a long battle to get into the Olympics, female boxers may be required to wear skirts in the ring for the 2012 London games  AIBA suggested skirts as a way to help women stand out from men  FIFA president suggesting women soccer players should wear tighter shorts to increase the game’s popularity Overweight:  Overweight stereotype:  Lazy, lack of self-control, unattractive, slow  Stigma is experienced differently  Seen as controllable, you choose to be overweight.   Outcomes  Held accountable for negative outcomes, it is their own fault.  More openly derogated than some other prejudice. Evident even in explicit measures.  Prejudiced against own group, feel the same towards other overweight people too.  In- group negativism. Blaming themselves and others for this negative stigma.  Well-being of the Overweight:  Quinn and Crocker (1999) Experiment 1  Correlation  Role of Protestant Ethnic (PE): IF you are not perceived as hardworking, you do not deserve any awards. If you did not get any awards, it is because you are not working hard enough  Experiment 1: Correlational study  Independent variables: Protestant Ethnic, weight status (normal, somewhat over-weight, very overweight).  Dependent variable: well-being  Results:  For women of normal weight, then the higher they believe in the PE the higher their psychological wellbeing  For somewhat overweight women there is no correlation  For very overweight women, the more they believe that they need to work hard to get awards (PE), the worse they feel.  They feel that they are not working hard enough to maintain a more desirable weight.  Experiment 2:  Primed PE or inclusion  Mood effects of media messages  Read paragraph that primed PE or inclusion (everyone is equal)  Read another article that discussed negative social effects of being overweight  Independent variables  Prime condition, weight status (normal, overweight)  Dependent variables  Well-being (post-pre), appearance SE (post-only)  Results:  General self-esteem: PE prime – Overweight have less psychological well-being. Inclusion – Overweight have better psychological well-being even after the article of the negative associations with overweight. The women might feel better that they are included.  Appearance self-esteem: inclusion – decrease gap between appearance self-esteem between normal and overweight women. PE – overweight women feels worse than normal weight women.  IF you believe in PE and think that it is controllable, then the women would feel worse about their weight.  Obesity in Canada: Increasing amount of overweight people recently. Could it be that if there are enough overweight people, could they be accepted too? Antigay Prejudice:  Forms of discrimination  Legal rights, hate crimes  Heterosexism  Current attitudes  Sex differences: women tend to have more positive attitudes towards gay than men.  There are more acceptances towards gay women than gay men. Pornographic lesbian material appeals more to straight men.  Characteristics of high prejudiced: more traditional people, people who believe that homosexism is a choice instead of biology, people who have more racial prejudice. Less contact with the gay community and less gay friends. Conservatives.  2008 US election for gay marriage bans: Increase in gay-marriage bans.  30 states is US passed bans on same-sex marriage  Arkansas banned unmarri
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