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PSY322 Lecture 2.docx

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Alison Chasteen

Lecture 2: Gender Stereotypes in TV Ads:  We see a lot of stereotypes in TV ads. We see bias against the old. “The old bag that you actually love”  Face-isms: focusing more on the face. There are more face-isms in men than in women. Low face-isms in women shows that they are unintelligent people with only attractive bodies. No head = no brain.  Men’s faces appear much more often than their bodies on TV.  Women’s bodies appear much more often than their faces in TV. By removing the faces, we are also removing the humility and individuality.  One example is the head phone ad. A man is avoiding the endless chatter of 2 older women beside him. The 2 older women has microphones for heads and thus the man has head phones to block them out. We are removing the individuality of the women and categorising all of them into chatterboxes.  Men appear twice as often in print ads as women do.  Studies: 1. Iijima Hall and Crum:  Looking at beer ads.  Very few minorities appeared in ads  More men than women in ads  49% of chest shot in women and 24% of chest shot in men  Twice as many body shots in women than men  We are exposed to beer ads during sports events which are mainly watched by men. The sports include football, hockey which are more violent and physical. Thus when men are watching these ads after a hockey game, they are exposed to both sexism and violence. 2. Rudman and Borgida:  The participants were undergraduate men.  Said that they were doing a marketing study by studying the ads, Then do a human resources study and interview job applicants.  Design: Saw 20 ads which either have gender stereotypes (sexist) or neutral (control).  Procedure: 1) Rate 20 ads. 2) Then do a lexical task: sexist words and double entendres. The participants have to decide if the words are word or non-word. Many of the non-words are pronounceable. Sexist words like babe and bimbo and double entendres with sexual puns, like easy and cherry. 3) After seeing the ads and doing the task, interview a female candidate (confederate)  Lexical Decision Task: Type of Word Sexist Control Sexist Faster Slower Non-sexist (mother, daughter etc.) Slower Faster Neutral (Chair, table etc.) Slower Faster Double entendre Same Same  Recall Results: Sexist Control Appearance More Less Biographical Information Less More # words about qualification Less More Social Judgements (competence) Less More  Sexualized Behaviour (rated by both the confederate and 3 parties): Sexist Control Proximity (Sits closer to her etc.) Closer Further Dominance More Less Sexual Behaviour More Less  Summary: Sexist ads affect both cognition (thought ) and behavior. Activated sexist language, focused more on physical aspects of candidate and shows greater sexualized behaviour. It affects both sexist (controlled processes) and non-sexist (autonomic processes) men’s behavior. 3. Lavine et al.  Impact of sexist ads on self-perceptions of body size.  Women who have been exposed to the sexist ads in Rudman’s study rate themselves as larger than if they had not been exposed to the body shapes than the control group.  Men who have been exposed to the sexist ads rate themselves as skinner and scrawnier than the control group. We are not only seeing skinny female models but buff male models.  Women in the sexist condition feel that they are a LOT bigger than their ideal body shape. Control condi
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