Gender Stereotypes in TV Ads:
We see a lot of stereotypes in TV ads. We see bias against the old. “The old bag that you actually
Face-isms: focusing more on the face. There are more face-isms in men than in women. Low
face-isms in women shows that they are unintelligent people with only attractive bodies. No
head = no brain.
Men’s faces appear much more often than their bodies on TV.
Women’s bodies appear much more often than their faces in TV. By removing the faces, we are
also removing the humility and individuality.
One example is the head phone ad. A man is avoiding the endless chatter of 2 older women
beside him. The 2 older women has microphones for heads and thus the man has head phones
to block them out. We are removing the individuality of the women and categorising all of them
Men appear twice as often in print ads as women do.
1. Iijima Hall and Crum:
Looking at beer ads.
Very few minorities appeared in ads
More men than women in ads
49% of chest shot in women and 24% of chest shot in men
Twice as many body shots in women than men
We are exposed to beer ads during sports events which are mainly watched by
men. The sports include football, hockey which are more violent and physical. Thus
when men are watching these ads after a hockey game, they are exposed to both
sexism and violence.
2. Rudman and Borgida:
The participants were undergraduate men.
Said that they were doing a marketing study by studying the ads, Then do a human
resources study and interview job applicants.
Design: Saw 20 ads which either have gender stereotypes (sexist) or neutral
1) Rate 20 ads.
2) Then do a lexical task: sexist words and double entendres. The participants
have to decide if the words are word or non-word. Many of the non-words are
pronounceable. Sexist words like babe and bimbo and double entendres with
sexual puns, like easy and cherry.
3) After seeing the ads and doing the task, interview a female candidate
(confederate) Lexical Decision Task:
Type of Word Sexist Control
Sexist Faster Slower
Non-sexist (mother, daughter etc.) Slower Faster
Neutral (Chair, table etc.) Slower Faster
Double entendre Same Same
Appearance More Less
Biographical Information Less More
# words about qualification Less More
Social Judgements (competence) Less More
Sexualized Behaviour (rated by both the confederate and 3 parties):
Proximity (Sits closer to her etc.) Closer Further
Dominance More Less
Sexual Behaviour More Less
Summary: Sexist ads affect both cognition (thought ) and behavior. Activated sexist
language, focused more on physical aspects of candidate and shows greater
sexualized behaviour. It affects both sexist (controlled processes) and non-sexist
(autonomic processes) men’s behavior.
3. Lavine et al.
Impact of sexist ads on self-perceptions of body size.
Women who have been exposed to the sexist ads in Rudman’s study rate
themselves as larger than if they had not been exposed to the body shapes than
the control group.
Men who have been exposed to the sexist ads rate themselves as skinner and
scrawnier than the control group. We are not only seeing skinny female models but
buff male models.
Women in the sexist condition feel that they are a LOT bigger than their ideal body
shape. Control condi