The Contact Hypothesis
- propose that increasing exposure to members of various groups can increase positive
evaluations of the outgroup and decrease prejudice and stereotyping.
- merely suggest putting 2 groups together, it is sufficient to reduce stereotype and
- research show it is not efficient in changing racial attitudes.
- allport’s contact hypothesis
- the effect of contact will depend upon the kind of association that occurs, upon
the kinds of persons who are involved.
- 4 fundamental criteria must be met for positive intergroup contact
- equal status member
- common goals
- intergroup cooperation
- support of legitimate authority
- 2 problem pettigrew said about contact hypothesis
- research tend to focus on when and why contact will result in positive intergroup
attitudes but does not speak to how this change in attitudes occurs in that
- contact hypothesis does not specify how positive feelings toward an outgroup
member on the contact situation can generalize to one’s feelings for the whole
- pettigrew reformulated contact theory
- longitudinal model of how the optimal contact situation should proceed and of
the change that need to take place before individuals start to think outgroup as
- first, need to beware that individuals bring their intergroup experiences
and bias to contact situation.
- the occurs the allport 4 considtions + additional conditions, for prejudice
and stereotype to reduce.
- begins decategorization, where they begin to see others in terms of
personalities and characteristics rather than group membership.
- hence outgroup becomes a useless heuristic in understanding an
- prolong contact facilitates salient categorization, where group members think of the
outgroup members as representative of the outgroup members in general, hence
change their negative view of the entire outgroup - last stage is re-categorization, where intergroup context is configured to encourage a
breakdown of us v. them distinct categories and form a broader we category.
commonalities outweighs differences.
Sheri’s Robber’s cave study: superordinate goal
- realistic conflict theory suggest that when 2 groups compete for resources, prejudice
and stereotype will result.
- in robber’s cave study, 2 groups of boys compete for scarce resources.
- prejudice resulted between groups.
- to reduce prejudice, stopped competition.
- making a superordinate goal, in that groups had to work together on a problem.
- this shows that prejudice and outgroup hostility can be caused by competition,
but can greatly reduced via intergroup coorperation on a superordinate goal.
Common Ingroup identity
- intergroup prejudice can be reduced by breaking down the salience of groups category
membership and by getting the groups to reconceptualize themselves as members of
a larger, common ingroup identity.
- works through decategorization and recategorization.
- however, could cause more prejudice and discrimination toward outgroups
- group members tend to preceive their ingroup as prototypical of