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chp 9.doc

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William Huggon

Chapter 9 The Contact Hypothesis - propose that increasing exposure to members of various groups can increase positive evaluations of the outgroup and decrease prejudice and stereotyping. - merely suggest putting 2 groups together, it is sufficient to reduce stereotype and prejudice. - research show it is not efficient in changing racial attitudes. - allport’s contact hypothesis - the effect of contact will depend upon the kind of association that occurs, upon the kinds of persons who are involved. - 4 fundamental criteria must be met for positive intergroup contact - equal status member - common goals - intergroup cooperation - support of legitimate authority - 2 problem pettigrew said about contact hypothesis - research tend to focus on when and why contact will result in positive intergroup attitudes but does not speak to how this change in attitudes occurs in that contact situation. - contact hypothesis does not specify how positive feelings toward an outgroup member on the contact situation can generalize to one’s feelings for the whole outgroup. - pettigrew reformulated contact theory - longitudinal model of how the optimal contact situation should proceed and of the change that need to take place before individuals start to think outgroup as potential friends. - first, need to beware that individuals bring their intergroup experiences and bias to contact situation. - the occurs the allport 4 considtions + additional conditions, for prejudice and stereotype to reduce. - begins decategorization, where they begin to see others in terms of personalities and characteristics rather than group membership. - hence outgroup becomes a useless heuristic in understanding an individual. - prolong contact facilitates salient categorization, where group members think of the outgroup members as representative of the outgroup members in general, hence change their negative view of the entire outgroup - last stage is re-categorization, where intergroup context is configured to encourage a breakdown of us v. them distinct categories and form a broader we category. commonalities outweighs differences. Sheri’s Robber’s cave study: superordinate goal - realistic conflict theory suggest that when 2 groups compete for resources, prejudice and stereotype will result. - in robber’s cave study, 2 groups of boys compete for scarce resources. - prejudice resulted between groups. - to reduce prejudice, stopped competition. - making a superordinate goal, in that groups had to work together on a problem. - this shows that prejudice and outgroup hostility can be caused by competition, but can greatly reduced via intergroup coorperation on a superordinate goal. Common Ingroup identity - intergroup prejudice can be reduced by breaking down the salience of groups category membership and by getting the groups to reconceptualize themselves as members of a larger, common ingroup identity. - works through decategorization and recategorization. - however, could cause more prejudice and discrimination toward outgroups - group members tend to preceive their ingroup as prototypical of
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