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PSY323 Lecture6 Notes.pdf

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Alison Luby

Lecture 6 Self-Sustaining Prophecies 9/27/12 4:01 PM -Start lit review for paper -In a few weeks the prof will ask us to send her a list of 3 articles we want to use Article: Prentice & Carranza (2002) • -5 different stereotypes • -what was desirable to men and women • -compared it to what is desirable to a person in society • -wan to know if a man scored women or lower • -Is kindness more important to men or women • -Is this trait important for this gender or is it just looked down for the other gender.. • -Can get a prescriptive in terms of how a certain gender is supposed to act • -What’s important or not for the genders • -Which traits are being inflated for one group and less for the other • -People are ascribing masculine traits to an average person • -Added control group to see if inflating or deflating groups • -most old papers tended to only use prescriptions, not negative traits • -Added proscriptions- some are more bad for a man or a woman Prentice & Carranza: Study 2 • -the expectation that women don’t have to be that smart • -intensified proscriptions • -women don’t have to be that smart-- applying that to average Princeton undergraduate women • -relaxed prescriptions--- relaxed for women-- about intelligence • -Women held to a lower standards • -to be considered “smart” as a woman, there’s a lower standard 1. Prescriptive stereotyping 2. The Dynamic Nature of Gender Stereotypes 3. Self-stereotyping • Gender self-stereotyping o Willingness to adhere to gendered rules in life and forfeit activities if they do not correspond to typical gender roles (Ex. Barbie saying life is hard) • Self-selection bias- the way we choose our life situation, roles and occupations • These choices affect what we learn, experience, status/ power • We keep self-selecting these careers that are stereotypically related to our gender o Labor participation rates (stats Canada website) § Women are joining the labor source more! Yay § But still in more gendered roles § Women are doing more health related stuff § Females are doing well in terms of education- graduating with more secondary education § Women are going into the labor force in very stereotypical ways • Academic majors and occupations still remain highly sex segregated o Women are pursuing math and science less than in the past • Self-selection perpetuates stereotypes and status differentials, thus continued sex segregation • We think that other gendered-roles are inappropriate and that we will do less well than them • We are influenced by others perceptions that certain abilities are sex-specific • People believe that math is a male skill even though girls do better than boys in elementary school! • Women tend to avoid careers in math and science • Women tend to not pursue high status occupations- EX. CEO • Women self-select into communal roles • The occupation remains sex-differentiated, making them seem more normative for each sex o Its easier to go for a job that society expects you to do well in • Social role theory suggest that we internalize the different behavior expectations based on the differential roles o Men value earnings, power, leadership and hierarchy- enhancing occupations o Women value interpersonal relationship, helping others and hierarchy-attenuating occupations. • Women remain underrepresented in high-status occupations, in part through self-selection o Self-selection often occurs because of internalization of gender norms o And/ or differences in values/ ideologies o Subsequently women have less power o The stereotype that men have more power is perpetuated § Women have to self-select into more agentic roles to change stereotypes 4. Stereotype confirmation • A. Perceptual Confirmation= People perceive others in way that make them seem stereotype consistent o Descriptive stereotypes can act as expectancies o Expectancies bias our perceptions in many ways (if you expect to see something, we’re more ready to see them) o Kunda, Sinclair, Griffith (1997) § Close your eyes and conjure up a detailed image of a very aggressive construction worker § Close your eyes and conjure up a detailed image of a very aggressive lawyer § What you imagine is in concert with your expectation § We expect aggression to come with the territory of being a lawyer o Stereotypes bias interpretation of ambiguous information in line with group membership-based expectations o Perceptual Confirmation § We focus on information that confirm the stereotype § We ignore/ reinterpret information that is inconsistent with it o We argue away the things that don’t match our expectations § Ex. Men saw woman weight lifting at gymà assumed she was trying to make her breast bigger § Ex. Stay at home dad was assumed that it wasn’t by choice-- people assumed his wife had died otherwise why would he come to the park so often o Cohen (1981) Participants watch a video of a woman doing a bunch of things § Either told she was a librarian or a waitressàinterpreted it differently § Shown a video of a women celebrating her birthday § Participants given words and decide which matched the women (librarian word or waitress word) § More likely to remember schema-consistent information and they recalled details in a schema-congruent manner- ignore the things that differentiate them o We often ask leading questions that make people respond in ways that we expect o You guide conversations in stereotype consistent information § Ex. If you met your mom’s female friend- ask about family; if met dad’s friend, ask about job § People respond in ways that we expect helps to perpetuate our stereotypes o If we ask about non-stereotypic events, we would gain more evenhanded/ non-stereotypic information about them B. Behavioral Confirmation • People act in ways that elicit stereotype-consistent behavior from others. • Expectancies (in shape of stereotypes) can create self-fulfilling prophecies o When the other person’s belief you end up confirming o Ex. If someone tells you that your roommate is shyà you will probably interact with them differently- you don’t give them the opportunity to act in different ways § We forget that people come with expectations o Ex. We think beautiful people are good at everything else
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