Class Notes (837,836)
Canada (510,504)
Psychology (3,528)
PSY328H1 (73)
Lecture 4

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Dax Urbszat

Lecture 4- RiskAssessment Behavioral Sciences andAnalysis Section - VICLAS- national program - OSOR- 1 of the 2 sex registries in Canada – everyone who has committed a sex offence - CBAU- a polygraph looking for deception through psychological means - (1) Polygraph unit – looking for deception through psychological means - Greater use of interviews and interrogations as opposed to polygraphs - Difference between interview and interrogation – gathering information vs. eliciting a confession - (2) Criminal Profiling – three criminal profilers - (3) ThreatAssessment – assessing potential of risk for a number of different cases - Assessing risk for a bail hearing (dangerous offender) - Review boards – unfit to stand trial? - Risk matters - (4) Forensic Psychology unit - (5) Research unit - All units work together – consultations What do we mean by risk assessment? - Assess risk daily on a number of issues - We live in a risk aversive society- constant assessing risk - Are people assessing each other’s risk- yes - Car insurance – young men are riskier – age , type of car , who you are all matter - Medical insurance - Risk of someone committing an offence – hurting somebody, stalking - Risk someone is posing to someone else - Dangerousness (old term) – the risk a certain person posesses - Likelihood that someone is going to commit and offence - Phrased in a difference way – probability (percentage) and categorization ( low risk, moderate risk to reoffend), percentile rankings - What do we mean by low risk – different for everyone – 10 %, 2% Purpose of RiskAssessment - Why do we measure risk? - To protect society - Risk assessment – decisions about somebody for something they have not done yet - Do certain things because we think the person might to something - Asses somebody in relation to risk - If they pose risk – use resources, treatment, work with them to manage their behavior - Risk assessment across areas in the justice system - Review boards – risk tools, factors, intensity/type of treatment - TX= treatment - LTO= long term offender - Can keep a LTO in jail for up to 10 years - Can keep a Dangerous offender indefinitely - Risk vs. recovery - Recovering from a disorder – in the case of schizophrenia- cant be done so help them manage it - If an offender is getting releases – assessment is done Formal RiskAssessment - Risk assessment ends up in court - Experts in court – trained in risk assessment- opinion about a specific topic - Risk assessment for domestic violence /sexual offending/child pornography offence - Different tools used for different areas - Example : child pornography - Are they likely to do something to a child- how would you know ? What are you going to look for? - Utilize multiple sources – not one risk factor, not one source - Social background – psychosocial components in relation to their offences - Confirmation is important - In the case of a psychopath – they will feed you the wrong information so file information is important - Criminal history - Sexual motivation - Person in a situation where they have the opportunity to offend - How do all these factors translate into risk - Away of combining factors - Factors are differentially weighted – is one item more important than another? ImportantAspects ofAssessment Measures - Base rates are meaningful - Something’s that rarely occur- difficult - Better assessments and predictions of domestic violence than murder (low base rate) - More difficult to predict what is going to happen - From a statistic perspective doesn’t give you a lot of power - From clinical perspective – hard to know the consequences - Children are more likely to be harmed by members within their family than by strangers - But children are taught according to things that are rare – stranger danger, don’t talk to strangers - Strangers seem to be more dangerous for parents - Reliability is also important – two people fill out an assessment – same answers? - Validity – how well are we predicting a future offence, the severity of a new offence, number of new offences - Make sure the tool is assessing what it is supposed to be - Inter rater validity Types of Factors - Static factors- no change - Really good factors for assessing long term risk – sexual violence over a period of time - Dynamic factors – changeable, fluctuating - Supervising someone on parole, on probation – want to know the dynamic factors - Useful on hospital board – assess whether they are using drugs - Good for monitoring individuals who are up and down (fluctuating) – find ways to manage them - Stable dynamic factors- not static , some fluctuation – you can intervene - Justice system in Canada is more integrated than the Us - Static 99- stable vs. acute version - Schizophrenia not a risk factor – mental illness is a protective factor- more often than not a mentally ill person is victimized - Personality disorder – is a dynamic risk factor – non compliance with medication - Protective factors – reduce or ameliorate the effects of other risk factors - If an individual likes to look at child pornography – likes children and not adults - Examples include solid family background, empathetic (reduces risk for offending) , not offence oriented (not in touch with other pedophiles) - Associated with other pedophiles makes them riskier - Sociopath- lack empathy - Factors matter across different types of offences - Domestic violence – hit , struck victim during pregnancy , confines/isolates vicitm– important risks for domestic murder - Victim vulnerabilities – isolated wife/ gf – put up barriers so she wouldn’t be to get assistance - Age of first offence matters– conduct disorder - Personality quite stable over time – became antisocial - Not always the case but conduct disorder can develop in antisocial personality over time - Psychological symptoms – substance abuse, impulsivity, recklessness - Multiple paraphilias – sadism – is different to BDSM , coercive rape fantasy , striking someone to get aroused - Sadism can lead to some problems – sexual fantasies doesn’
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