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chapter 5

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Chapter Five Eyewitness TestimonyEyewitness Testimony The Role of MemoryA large part of eyewitness testimony relies on memoryStages of memory o Perceptionattention stage o Encoding stage perceive and pay attention to details in your environment o Shortterm memory has a limited capacity o Longterm memory can be accessed or retrieved as neededo Retrieval stageNot every piece of information will go through all the memory stages and factors can affect each stageOur memory can change each time we retrieve the event some parts of the event may be embellished or guessed at because we cannot remember all the details Recall memory reporting details of a previously witnessed event or person o What the culprit did and what the culprit looked likeRecognition memory determining whether a previously seen item or person is the same as what is currently being viewedo Hearing a set of voices and identifying the culprits voice or identifying clothing worn by the culprit during the crime How Do We Study Eyewitness Issues The Laboratory Simulation o An unknowing participant views a critical event such as a crime through a slide sequence a video recording or live o The participant is unaware that heshe will be questioned about the event until after the event is witnessed o Now a witness the participant is asked to describe what happened and the targetculprit involved o Independent variablesCan be manipulated or examined within the laboratory simulationEstimator variables variables that are present at the time of the crime and that cannot be changedy Age of witness amount of lighting presence of a weapon whether the witness was intoxicatedy The criminal justice system cannot exert control over these variablesSystem variables variables that can be manipulated to increase or decrease eyewitness accuracy
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