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Chapter 4

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Chapter Four DeceptionThe Polygraph TechniquePrinciple deception is associated with physiological changePolygraph a device for recording an individuals autonomic nervous system responses o Measures breathing amount of sweat on skin conductance of skin galvanic skin response heart rate o Polygraph tests rely on measuring physiological responses to different types of questionsApplications of the Polygraph Test o In Canada police use them to help in their criminal investigations o If the person fails the suspect may be pressured to confess o Polygraph disclosure tests polygraph tests that are used to uncover information about an offenders past behavior Types of Polygraph Tests o The Comparison Question TestMost commonly used test to investigate criminal actsIncludes irrelevant questions that are unrelated to the crime relevant questions concerning the crime being investigated and comparison questions concerning the persons honesty and past history prior to the event being investigated Includes a pretest interviewy Polygraph examiner develops the control questions learns about the background of the suspect and attempts to convince the suspect of the accuracy of the polygraph test Examiner asks ten questions to be answered with a yes or nothree types of questions asked y Irrelevant referring to the respondents identity or personal background are not scored y Relevant and control establish guilt or innocence relevant questions deal with the crime being investigation control questions comparison are designed to be emotionally arousing for all respondents and typically focus on the persons honesty and past history prior to the event being investigatedPolygraph examiners assume they can detect deception by comparing reactions to the relevant and comparison questionsGuilty suspects are assumed to react more to relevant questions than comparison questionsThree possible outcomes of a polygraph test truthful deceptive and inconclusive
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