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PSY333 Lec 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Sayyed Mohsen Fatemi

PSY333- Health Psychology- Lec2 9/26/12 2:07 PM • PSY333 • Lecture 2 • Styles of thinking in Health Psychology àOrthodox medicine and holistic approaches • Orthodox western medicine has always been based on the belief that physical illness has physical causes and requires physical treatment • The physicalist approach is increasingly being applied to psychological disorders • According to Galen, psychological and physical disorders are both attributed to an imbalance of the 4 bodily humours- blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile • One feature of the doctrine: 4 classical temperaments • Humoural theory was abandoned following the rapid development th of physiology in the 19 century • Somatoform= when you feel a physical ailment, but there’s nothing wrong with you physically, you just see yourself paralyzed • Concept of stress-related disease • Health and whole come from the same word (WHO says health=mental, spiritual, psychological health) àFreud • He proposed psychological explanations for organic disorders • His psychoanalytic theories originated in the study of hysteria • Hysteria is now called somatoform-- psychological in origin àMedically unexplained symptoms • Medically unexplained symptoms: accounts for nearly half of all primary care consultations • CBT is the most effective treatment • Brown (2004) attempts to integrate them into modern neuropsychological theory • Primary thoughts can be rectified or enhanced by the secondary thoughts • If primary thoughts are ratified by your secondary thoughts, your secondary thoughts will be higher • If primary thoughts are rectified by your secondary thoughts your emotions will be lower àHow to rectify your primary thoughts? • 1) Evaluation: Write down all your thoughts • 2) Challenge them- who told you if you got a B+ your not good • 3) Replace your negative thoughts with positive thoughts • Ex. Stage fright: Imagine yourself succeeding, look at someone smiling, adequate preparation, shift perspective àPsychosomatic medicine and organic illness • Psychosomatic approach in psychoanalysis: freud applied this method to physical ailments • George Grodeck believed that all illness is unconsciously motivated and has a meaning for the sufferer (Brown, 2004) • -Wilhelm Reich: repressed sexual feelings could cause a blocking of àPreventing Stress • Cognitive coping, Problem focused coping, Emotion coping, Relaxation techniques, Priming, Social support • How are they related to mindfulness? o There are some stressful events that can be prevented (our thoughts are responsible for those frustrations) and some stressful events cannot be prevented • àHow to deal with stress? It’s going to happen and its going to be awful 1) Why might it not happen? Why else? 2) What are the advantages to the stressor? 3) What are the disadvantages to it not happening? • You need to ask yourself some questions when your stressed: o How do I see the situation? o What am I telling myself about it? o How does my language create stress for me? o What is the relationship between my thoughts and this situation? o Martin & Lefcourt (1983)- students with better sense of humour had better self-concepts and better self-esteem § Humor has been shown to help students deal with depression àAnxiety • Where do automatic thoughts come from? • Fear, doubt, skepticism, childhood experience • If you see anxiety as a channel and you hold the remote. If you see anxiety as a choice you can see how to change it. • Make a chart with 2 columns: one with automatic thoughts and one for secondary thoughts àPower of Humor • Laughing takes you out of the situation, it helps you get detached from the situation and you see you have room for proactive thought. It’s all about a change in situation • Humour gives you a time out from stress • Allow you to alter your automatic stress response • Those who use humor to cope have higher immunoglobulin A, a protein based antibody synthesized by the B cells in the immune system • One study demonstrated that immunoglobulin A increased in subjects after they had watched a comedy film, but did not increase in subjects who watched an instructional film • When you’re stressed, think of something that makes you smile, something that makes you exhilarated • Taking life from a spontaneous perspective is less stressful o Martin, Lefcourt (1983)- the college students with a better sense of humor had better self-concepts and higher self- esteem than others. They also seemed better able to shrug off setbacks and cope more effectively with everyday stressors • Nezu, Nezu, Blissett (1988) Humor helped students deal with depression àCognitive therapy • Thoughts drive emotion • Restoring rationality/ realism • Highly effective • An acquired skill àRational and experiential mind • Rational mind: contemplation, reasoning • Experiential mind: emotions, feeling, affect o Ex. If you tell someone with stage fright not be scared and tell them about Plato will it help them? NO. You have only convinced her rational mind, not her experiential mind o You need your experiential mind to be convinced as well as your rational mind • à Avoid the 3 Ms • Magnifying (exaggerating) o -permanent and pervasive (over-generalizing) o -All or nothing thinking • Minimizing (underplaying) o -Tunnel vision o -Dismissal of positive or negative • Making up (fabricating) o Personalization o Emotional reasoning àIncreasing perceived control in nursing homes • Many people who end up in nursing homes and hospitals feel they have lost control of their lives (Raps, Peterson, Jonas, & Seligman, 1982). People are often placed in long-term care facilities against their wishes and, once there, have little say in what they do, whom they see, or what they eat. • Indeed, the residents in the induced control group became happier and more active than residents in the comparison group (Langer & Rodin, 1976). Most dramatically of all, the intervention improved the residents’ health and reduced the likelihood that they would die in the next year and a half (Rodin & Langer, 1977). • Even a small boost in feelings of control can prolong life • 18 months after nursing home residents were given simple control over a movie night and watering a plant, 15% had died compared to 30% not given choices • Loss of control= stagnation • When people don’t see empowerment or control in life they have low health • When you think you don’t have control over your life, it is the start of ill health • People like having options • If you give people a radical change in perspective to allow them to have options, it empowers them • Social support is important in terms of health and self- empowerment- not just receiving, but also giving social support à High context v. Low context cultures • High context cultures: not straight forward- multilayered approach to relationships • Low context cultures: a spade is a spade- Ex. Scandinavia- Give me a bottle of water please. You must consider the cultural issues! àUncertainty and anxiety
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