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PSY333H1 (68)
Lecture

PSY333 Lec 3

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY333H1
Professor
Sayyed Mohsen Fatemi

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Description
PSY333- Health Psychology- Lec3 9/26/12 2:07 PM Tetxbook: • Active-passive model • Cooperative model of communication between doctors • Metacommunication= communication about communication • Metacognition= thinking about what you think • Doctors need to be mindful of patients feelings • STRESS • Preventable and non-preventable stress • Cognitive restructuring • Coping and adaptation • Mental preparation- ex. Stage fright • Techniques for coping with stress o 1. Get your muscles as tense as you can in 20sec o Shows how your mind can change tension into relaxation if you get into a stressful situation o 2. Move your head clock-wise then counter-clockwise o 3.Visualization • Things that happen to us are either: o 1. Choices o 2. Not your choice • When someone spills tea on you, it is not your choice, but how you respond is your choice o When you make a choice that you regret, forgive yourself, don’t live in a house of the past o Ex. Being at a football game, when you are present, you are less stressed o When you’re stressed you cant deal with the situation at the time, you cant focus • Signs of stress o Behavioral: Fly off the handle when people speak to you-- you’re not-tolerant o Cognitive: you forget stuff o Emotionally: easily perturbed o Socially: cant deal with issues in an effective manner, organizational skills are poor, you’re overwhelmed • Stressor: • Ex. War, overcrowding, dense traffic, marital conflict, work stress • Divorce, death, rupture in relationship • Undergrad stressors: raped, being accused of rape, death, STD, Pregnancy, finals, oversleeping for exam, flunking a class, cheating spouse, major paper, drunk driving, 2 exams in one day, marriage, drinking, drugs, talking in front of class, lack of sleep, job changes, declaring a major, a class you hate, drinking or use of drugs, confrontation with professor, new semester, going on date, getting sick, getting straight As, falling asleep in class • Some physical symptoms of stress: Anger, fatigue, lack of motivation, nervous, headache, anxiety, stomach pain, change in menstruation cycle • Medium term effects of chronic stress: tension, headache, difficulty sleeping, upset stomach, problems relating to food, change in appetite, tightness in chest back neck, aching jaw, tight forehead, shortness of breath, dizziness, tingling in fingers, toes, heart palpitations, nervous tension, constipation, diarrhea • We need to be Vigilant • Vitiant artus aegrae contagia mentis (when the mind is ill at ease, the body is affected)—Ovid • Stressors suggest some dysfunction in interpersonal or intrapersonal relationship • You always blame people, you cant communicate well • When the mind is ill at ease, the body is affected • Simon Epstein??? I told myself in the mirror: “I’ll back you up, I’ll support you” • Three views of stress 1. Focus on environment: stress as a stimulus (stressor)- ex. exam 2. Reaction to stress: stress as a response (distress) 3. Relationship between person and the environment: stress as an example (coping)- Be assertive, not passive o Emotional abduction-- we don’t think about anything other than that emotional sadness, we are encage and incarcerated by that perspective-- mindlessness doesn’t allow us to look at other perspectives-- they describe it as paralysis § The worst thing is to think you cant stand up and go. Everyone has failures! Don’t say you cant go anymore o Perspective management- does it allow you to become hopeful. Does it allow you to shift your perspective o Cognitive reframing § Ex. Go to neighbor and say “you put your garbage in my trash”- they’re like “do you go to church, jesus says _____ about neighbors“ • Acute stress: sudden, short-lived, threatening event • When you get stressed: the sympathetic nervous system mobilizes resources to deal with the stressor (>rate and strength of cardiac contraction, constriction of blood vessels in the skin,< in gastrointestinal activity, >respiration, stimulates sweat glands and pupils dilate. o Secrete epinephrine (adrenaline); ACTH, cortisol o The body gets ready to fight or flight—aroused from a resting state by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system and secreting hormones • Two types of stress: o 1. Eustress= not bad stress; without this how would you do anything in life (positive stress) o 2. Distress= bad stress • Mental stress increases oxygen demand because blood pressure and heart rates are elevated • Vascular resistance and coronary artery constriction during mental stress also decrease blood supplyàdecreased blood flow to the heart muscle • Blood tends to clot more easily when stressed… good if you get a cut, but this is bad because increased blood clotting in the blood vessels around the heartà if clot gets too big and released, may cause heart attack or stroke • Rokanski 1988- Cardiav motion abnormalities were significantly greater with stress speech than with other mental tasks and was the same order of magnitude as that with graded stress • A good deal of stress is interpersonal o Fear of judgment is one of the strongest stressors o If you always see yourself as being judged or blame yourself, they all give you stress and make you feel like something is wrong with you o I’ll do my best and the rest is not up to me • Sympathetic nervous system is negatively correlated with ANS- affects organs but does so when relaxed • Chronic stress: ongoing environmental demand-- wears the body down, depletes resources so we work… • BP and HR were both higher on a work day • You can always have stress, but how you interpret it has an impact on the body • Physiological aspects: o Cardiovascular reactivity: increased bp, platelets, lipids (cholesterol) o Endocrine reactivity: increased catecholamines and corticosteroids o Immune reactivity: increased hormones impair immune function • Guru test: How does he or she do it-- what would he or she do? • Movie: Nuns on the run, we’re no angels • Psychophysiological disorders o Digestive system o Respiratory system o Cardiovascular system • The Hawthorn Effect: It wasn’t the light, but the attention they received • Hans Selye= the father of stress • Tried to isolate new sex hormones: injected rats with an ovarian extract mix; sacrificed them noticed: o 1) Adrenal glands enlarged o 2) Thymuses, spleens & lymph nodes shrunk o 3) Bleeding ulcers in the stomach • What if he discovered a general hormone triggered by challenge o It became the “General Adaptation Syndrome” and then simply stress syndrome : the non_____ response placed on it……..” o The body responds to any external biological source of stress with a predictable biological pattern in an attempt to restore homeostasis o Initial reaction is fight or flight. Seyle felt there’s a limited amount of energy to deal with stress and it declines with exposure • Perceived stressoràAlarm reactionàResistanceàExhaustion • During stage of resistance the body tries to adapt to the stressor with a slight decrease in arousal and heightened resistance to stress and illness, however, remains vulnerable to over-react to additional stressors. • During stage of exhaustion, prolonged physiological arousal leads to changes in stress glands; weakened immune system; decreased resistance; damaged vasculature; and even death. Some truth to this theory with stress effects seen with essential hypertension, heart disease, and immune-related deficiencies. • Criticized because it assigns little role to psychological factors; not all stressors have been found to
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