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PSY333 Lec 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Sayyed Mohsen Fatemi

Lecture 4 9/26/12 2:07 PM TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS MODEL • 3 sources of behavior regardless of color/age/language/cultural background • 1. PARENT • A. Critical Parent o Critical-Parent statement o Point finger, shake head, look of disgust o 3 Critical Parenting styles: § 1. Excessive- excessive, manipulative behavior § 2. Appropriate- § 3. Inadequate-don’t deal with the issue o -Low and excessive parenting will cause physiological and psychological problems o Don’t take responsibility o Will have problems with self and around yourself • B. Nurturing parent o Well done, good job, “I admire what you did” o Smiling, hugs o Can have inadequate, appropriate, excessive types of nurturing § Inadequate/Low (no care): problematic in doctors § Excessive: Too concerned about perceptions and feelings • 2. CHILD • A. Spontaneous Child o Excessive Spontaneous child- fun side, entertaining, amusing, creative Ex. Bungee jumping, make jokes all the time § Irresponsible § Ex. Nurse- emailing when person bleeding o Low Spontaneous o Appropriate- display fun side when appropriate o Everyone has the potential to be a spontaneous child • B. Angry Child o Excessive: angry, fly of f the handle, irritable, stressed because of this o Appropriate: When you do that, it makes me angry/ annoyed o Inadequate: Passive, suppress anger, emotional stagnation • C. Withdrawn Child o Excessive: No relationship, wont respond to child, no eye contact o Appropriate: Keep privacy to yourself o Inadequate: No privacy • 3. ADULT • A. Adult o Analyzes, asks questions, discusses o “Lets sit down and evaluate the problem” o “I agree with your…”, “Let me tell you why I feel that way..”, “What is your suggestion” § Sometime you come from an adult-oriented view, but deep down its not an adult-- Some times you will say “What time is it? When someone is late, but deep down they want to say your late.” o Excessive adult- over analyze, over contemplate, over analysis, cant make decisions o Appropriate: based on contemplation o Inadequate adult: impulsive o Ex. Larry King § If his status was lower than others, he copied their style of speaking § If they were “lower status” he wouldn’t change his style of speaking § Emotions are contagious • No confrontation when there are complementary transactions Ex. AdultàAdult o You can have cross-transactions between the types o Excessive angry childàmost likely respond as critical parent o Keep on coming from the Adult even if others are coming in other ways • Can be a positive cross transaction • If you keep coming as an adult, irrelevant of how they respond, keep coming from adult • Health wise, management between doctor--patient o Look into the context, what does the patient want and then implement the right type of strategy o Biomedical model cant take account of this • Need suitable interaction style between you and parent • Ex. Client-- practitioner interaction o Nurturing parent- for terminally ill, need hope, encouragement, understanding o Not listening leads to many medical errors o More people have died because of medical errors than in car accidents o You need to diagnose before prescribing! • Some times critical parent can be appropriate- Ex. “I really suggest you take these pills”, “I told you and I need you to understand this, I really need you to take these pills” • Inadequate critical parent, low confidence-- don’t take responsibility; don’t believe that they can take responsibility • Appropriate depends on the context- you always need situational analysis • You have to look at cost, skills and risk- BE MINDFUL OF THE CONTEXT! • You come from your own perspective as the observer, but you wont see it form the perspective of the actor • Faco- “Archeology of Power”- people who have victimized others in the name of power • We need an understanding of the actor- through dialogue, listening • When physicians aren’t listening, they come up with labels that make people mindless • Ella Langer’s Grandmother: “I feel like a snake is going through my head”, but the doctors dismissed it. Turned out she had a brain tumor • Proactive people maximize the minimum • 5 New things about self MEDICAL LANGUAGE • What do people hear when physicians speak? • When they are sick, what do people say • How does language influence our health? • Our stories(internal dialogue, internal acknowledgement). . . Language influences you- As long as our stories stay the same, there’s no chance of change • We are always creating stories for ourselves: promises, warning, hopes, acknowledgement-- they all make our own stories • Our emotional heritage is one part of our stories • Opening up: Making sense of traumatic thoughts • Trying to suppress negative thoughts can lead to a preoccupation with those very thoughts. The act of trying not to think about them can actually make us think about them more • Writing about or confiding in others about a traumatic event may help people gain a better understanding of the event and thus move forward with life • Our body doesn’t lie-- we always communicate through our body • The body will reveal what the language may hide • Opening up about traumatic events can create more stress in the ST • It can help alleviate some stress in the LR • On the other hand, it can also make stressful events more memorable… • Lie detection: • Guilty show increase in BO and physiological indicators of stressors when askes about the crime, but not reliably different from not guilty so not allowed in court • Why does talking work? • Inhibition is physical work • Inhibition affects short term biological changes • Inhibition influences thinking ability • Confrontation reduced the effects of inhibition • Confrontation forces a rethinking of traumatic events • Pennebaker: Questionnaire regarding childhood traumas- those who had not confided in someone about it had the most health problems • Of the 200 respondents, 65 had an undisclosed childhood trauma and they had more co
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