Class Notes (839,195)
Canada (511,223)
Psychology (3,528)
PSY333H1 (68)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - Pain

6 Pages

Course Code
Nevena Simic

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
June 25, 2011 Lecture 6 - Pain Case Study: Miss C. 1. Normally developed (average intelligence) 2. Never felt pain as a child o Bit off the tip of her tongue while chewing food o 3rd degree burns from kneeling on hot radiator o Can’t remember ever sneezing or coughing, no gag reflex or corneal reflex (when puff of air lands on our eyes) 3. Physicians studied her: electrical shocks, immerse hands in hot water/cold water, pinched o No changes in heart rate, blood pressure or breathing 4. Sever medical problems o Knee, hips, spine (remain in one position too long) >> inflammation of joints • Neglect injuries >> infection 5. Died from age 29 from massive infections Significance of Pain 6. Pain = symptom of chief concern to patients o Leads them to seek medical attention 7. Pain often considered of secondary importance to MD 8. Patients fear pain in illness and treatment most o Fearing that they can’t relieve suffering >> increased anxiety o Most common reason for euthanasia 9. $4 billion is spent annually in Canada on over-the-counter pain medications 10. Pain is adaptive o Increases chances of survival o Tells us to avoid behavior the may hurt us o Forces us to rest and recover after an injury 11. Can be reflexive and unconscious 12. Learning mechanism o EX = spanking children; shocking rats 13. Pain, example of operant conditioning o Learning based on consequences o Positive = add o Negative = taking away 14. Reinforcement - consequences of behavior increases likelihood of behavior in the future o + >> reward o -- >> don’t have to do a chore (removing negative stimulus) 15. Punishment - consequences decrease the likelihood of the behavior in the future o + >> giving negative stimulus (ie. Spanking) o -- >> taking away something good (ie. Tv time) People in Pain When? 16. Pain behaviors - behaviors that occur in response to pain o Facial and audible expressions of distress o Distortions in posture and gait o Negative affect o Avoidance of activity 17. Pain experience is subjective (psychological aspect) o Influenced by context it’s experienced in • Beecher’s example of soldiers vs civilians 25% wounded soldiers ask for morphine vs 80% of civilians after surgery Soldiers think of pain as more positive than civilian • Sports injury continue to play SNS arousal diminishes pain sensitivity Stress and psych distress aggravate experience of pain Pain in the Lab 18. Method of cold-presser task o Submerge hand in cold water until they experience pain >> push a button o Indicates they have reached pain threshold 19. Pain tolerance levels o Duration of time person is willing to endure a stimulus beyond where it began to hurt o OR intensity of stimulus a person will endure beyond the point where it began to hut o Can’t stand it anymore = level of pain tolerance Pain Perception 20. Pain has a substantial cultural component o No ethnic of racial differences in ability to discrimiate painful stimuli o But members of some cultures report pain sooner (sensitivity) and react more intensely (reactivity) to it than individuals of other cultures o Differences in cultural norms regarding expression of pain and maybe even different pain mechanisms 21. US: pain tolerance Whites > Africans or Asians 22. Gender differences o Women = more sensitive (lower pain threshold) • More severe levels, more frequent, longer duration of pain o More likely to experience recurrent pain • Migraine, back, abdominal… o Differences in feeling or reporting pain June 25, 2011 • Men taught to tough it out and women are not (social costs of admitting that something hurts) 23. Age = decline in pain sensitivity 24. Depression = lower sensitivity to external pain Pain Physiology 25. Despite enormous variability in how we perceive pain, there is hard-wired physiological basis for pain 26. Overview: o Free nerve endings in periphery o Send messages to spinal cord o Spinal tracts carry messages to midbrain and thalamus o Conscious ……………………. Nociception 27. Contact with stimulus - stimulus can be mechanical (pressure) or chemical 28. Reception - a nerve ending sense the stimulus 29. Transmission - nerve sends signal to cnetral nervous system. Relay of information involves several neurons 30. Pain center reception - brain receives the information for further processing and action 31. 3 kinds of pain perceptions (nociception) o Mechanical o Thermal o Chemical 32. Differences in types of pain attributed to differences in pain receptors (nociceptors) o Unevenly distributed in body (none in brains, but some in skull) 33. Location :: any area of the body that can sense pain either externally or internally 34. Classified based on which environmental modalities they respond to o Thermal nociceptors o Mechanical noci o Chemcial noci o Polymodal noci - respond to more than one of these modalities 35. 2 main types of axons: o A-delta fibers - sharp pain (thermal and mechanical) • 20 m/s • Myelinated o C fibers - dull or aching pain • 2 m
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.