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PSY333H1 Lecture 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Lisa Lipschitz

PSY333H1F L2 Sept 19, 2013 o Adrenal Cortex: secretes steroids  Essay: focus on bhvr change & the process of change  Ex. ACTH (secreted by pituitary gland)  o What helps? secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal o What was missing that got in the way of your bhvr cortex change? o Provides energy by helping the body convert stored proteins & fats in glucose  Don’t need to memorize pics of body parts The Systems of the Body (cont.) Adrenal Gland Activity in Response to Stress  Stress  2. The Endocrine System o Sympathetic NS  Adrenal Medulla   Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine & epinephrine)   Heart rate increases & heart capillaries dilate  Blood pressure increases via vasoconstriction  Blood diverted to muscle tissue  Breathing rate increases  Digestion slows down  Pupils dilate o Pituitary gland  Adrenal Cortex   Secretion of corticosteroids  Increases protein & fat mobilization  Increases access to bodily storage  Inhibits antibody formation & inflammation  Regulates sodium retention Thyroid Gland  Located in the neck  Produces hormone thyroxin: regulates activity level & growth  Immune fn  Hypothyroidism: insufficient thyroid hormones o  low activity levels, weight gain  Hyperthyroidism: over-secretion of thyroid hormones o  hyperactivity, insomnia, weight loss  Made up of a # of ductless glands which secrete hormones into  Can prescribe medication (possibly lifelong) to balance the blood, stimulating targeted organs thyroid hormones  Maintains homeostasis  Works w ANS to control the body’s activities Pancreas  Located below stomach  Communicates via chemical substances like hormones which travel thru the bloodstream to their intended targets  Regulates level of blood sugar by producing insulin – absorbs blood sugar  Assists w digestion & absorption of nutrients  NS responsible for short-term, fast-acting bodily changes  Endocrine system responsible for acting responses for a longer duration Endocrine Disorders  Diabetes: Chronic endocrine disorder in which the body is  Regulated by the Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland (“master unable to manufacture or properly use insulin gland) which secretes hormones related to o Growth (bone, muscle, organs, gonads (gonadotropic) ), o 2 mil Canadians have diabetes thyroid (TSH), and adrenal glands (adrenocorticotropic o Leading cause of blindness in adults o Lose sensation in extremities hormone; ACTH to produce more cortisol) o Produces oxytocin (interpersonal relationships, goes o 50% of kidney dialysis patients (kidney failure) up when need to be near others, produces labour  Helps clear out bloodstream o Type 1: contractions, lactation) and water absorbing ability of the kidneys  pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin o Age 11-12: Pituitary signals it’s time for Puberty  insulin dependent for rest of life  typically diagnosed in childhood (happens over long term)  Changes can be subtle at 1t  aka Juvenile Diabetes o Type 2:  Body doesn’t properly use insulin Adrenal Glands – located on top of each kidney  Might get to pt that they have to use insulin  Composed of the Adrenal Medulla & Adrenal Cortex o Adrenal Medulla: secretes the catecholamines,  Heavily influenced by lifestyle (ex. obersity) epinephrine & norepinephrine  Important to change eating bhvr to reverse Type 2 3. The Cardiovascular System  The transport system of the body  Heart, blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins), blood  Blood transports o Carries:O2from lungs to tissues,CO2 from tissues to lungs o Nutrients o Waste from cells to kidneys o hormones  Arteries: o Carry oxygenated blood from heart to other organs & tissues o Red  Veins: o Returns deoxygenated blood to heart  cleaned, then can be returned w oxygenated cells o Blue  The blood circulates in 2 separate loops o For both loops, blood goes back to the heart to be oxygenated Blood Pressure  Pressure of blood in the arteries 1. Pulmonary circulation  As the heart contracts & pushes blood into the arteries o Closed loop btwn the heart & lungs o Blood is transferred from the heart to the lungs (systolic cardiac cycle)  blood pressure increases  As the heart rests btwn beats & no blood is pumped (diastolic   Replenishment of oxygen cardiac cycle) blood pressure is at its lowest 2. Systemic circulation o Links heart to other body systems & returns oxygen- depleted blood Dynamics of Blood Pressure  Cardiac Output: o Blood is brought back to heart by veins & taken by arteries o force of contraction of the heart muscle  Heart Rate: o speed of contraction Heart  Fns in a rhythmic phase: The Cardiac Cycle  Blood Volume: amt of blood in the system  Systole: o When blood volume increases the heart has to work harder so that cardiac output & heart rate will increace o Blood pumped out of heart  increasing blood pressure (the force blood exerts against the blood  Peripheral Resistance: vessel walls) o ease w which blood can pass thru the arteries (as resistance increases, blood pressure increases)  Diastole: o When heart relaxes  blood pressure drops in the blood vessels  blood taken into heart  When arteries dilate (e.g., in heat) diastolic blood pressure decreases  Fist-size muscle that circulates blood to & from lungs to body Blood pressure increases when heart rate or cardiac output  4 chambers: increases in response to: o activity, change in posture, while talking, when under o Atrium (2 upper chambers):  Receive blood returning to heart & transfer it to stress, temperature changes ventricles  Blood pressure follows a circadian (daily) rhythm such that it is lowest when in deep sleep o Ventricles (2 lower chambers):  Pump blood from heart to lungs (pulmonary) or other body parts (systemic) Cardiovascular System Disorders  Left side pumps oxygenated blood from lungs out to  Disorders often due to congenital defects, infection, and/or periphery & brain damage over the life span o Larger due to greater pumping load  Ride side takes deoxygenated blood to lungs  Atherosclerosis: damage caused by plaque build-up (ex. Cholesterol) in the arteries  Arteriosclerosis: calcium & other substances get deposited on the arterial wall  hardening of the plaques  Damage to artery walls can also cause blood clots o Manifestion  Angina Pectoris: chest pain due to heart strain resulting from lack ofO2or inadequate removal of waster &CO2  Myocardial Infarction (MI): blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the heart (aka heart attack)  Hypertension: chronically high blood pressure due to high cardiac output or blood flow resistance (peripheral resistance) Types: 1. Essential (primary): no known physical cause (90-95% of cases)  Risk factors for essential hypertension:  Physical inactivity, body weight, salt consumption, age, gender (males at greater risk), stress, ethnicity, genetic,  3 main fns: smoking o Take in oxygen  Can change lifestyle, take blood thinners o ExcreteCO2 2. Secondary hypertension: due to specific cause (ex. o Regulate blood composition adrenal tumour)  Respiratory movements controlled by brain stem, pons, Blood & Blood Products medulla oblongata  Blood: made up of plasma (fluid portion of blood) & blood o Involuntary cells  IfCO2 too high  breath heavily & faster  take in more  Blood is produced by bone marrow oxygen  White blood cells o Heal the body by removing foreign substances from the  Air enters the body thru nose & mouth body  Travels past the larynx  down the trachea & bronchial tubes  Lymphocytes into the lung o Produce antibodies to fight infection & disease  Bronchial tubes divide into small branches (bronchioles) &  Red blood cells then tiny sacs (alveoli) o Contain hemoglobin which carryO2&CO2 throughout  The lungs contain about 300 mil alveoli the body  via the alveoli, gas2(O & C2 ) is exchanged btwn air & blood o Most abundant  Alveoli are encircled by a dense collection of pulmonary  Platelets capillaries, which contain blood o Blood vessel repair o Blood clotting by granular fragments that are clumped Disorders of the Respiratory System together  Asphyxia: low O 2 high CO 2 caused by obstruction, confined Blood Disorders space, or insufficient for body’s needs White Cell Production  Anoxia: shortage ofO2 disorientation, lose sense of danger,  Ex. Leukemia: a bone marrow disease causing excessive pass into coma (pilots at high altitude) white cells overloading the blood plasma  reducing red blood cells  can lead to anemia  Hay Fever: seasonal allergies o body produces histamines  the capillaries in the lungs Red Cell Production become inflamed & create fluid  Anemia: too few red blood cells (low hemoglobin) o Feel very tired  Asthma: severe allergic reaction, can be brought on by stress o Can take iron pills to balance out level of hemoglobin or exercise  Sickle Cell Anemia: genetic disorder, inability to produce o Significant increase in childhood rate normal shaped blood cells (“sickle shaped”)  vulnerable to  Air pollution/contamination  harder to rupture leaving indiv susceptible to anemia breathe, breathe in dirty air o Childhood infectious diseases? 4. The Respiratory System o Hygiene?  Viral Infections o Common cold, influenza, Bronchitis  Bacterial Infections o Strep throat, whooping cough, bronchial pneumonia (secondary infection) o produces hydrochloric acid & pepsin (gastric  Pneumonia: secretions) to help break down the food even further o Lobar pneumonia is a primary infection of the entire  Peristalsis moves food from the stomach to the duodenum lobe of the lung  prevents normal oxygen-carbon (part of small intestine) dioxide exchange o Part of the digestive system w its own fn’ing NS o Also the infection can spread to other organs  Pancreas: o Pancreatic enzymes are secreted into the duodenum  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) o  breakdown fats, proteins, carbs o 4 leading cause of death in Canada  Liver: o Affects the alveoli - lose their elasticity & cannot o produces bile to help break down fats; enters the constrict during exhalation duodenum via the gall bladder o Ex, Emphysema: forced exhalation so CO not 2  Small intestine: eliminated o secretes enzymes that complete food breakdown,  Most likely cause is smoking or inhalation of absorption of food toxic substances o Only part of PNS that contains extensive neural circuits  Lung Cancer that are capable of local, autonomous fn o Most cancer causing deaths  Large Intestine: o Most preventable form of cancer o Storage organ, helps w reabsorption of water o Smoking, air pollution, toxins in the workplace o Passes remaining waste to the rectum for excretion 5. The Digestive System Diseases/Disorders of the Digestive System How does the digestive system metabolize food?  Gastroenteritis  Food supplies body w nutrients for tissue growth & repair o Inflammation of the stomach & small intestine caused  Digestion: by overeating or drinking, contaminated food or water o the process of changing food to a form that can be or food poisoning absorbed by the blood o Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps,  Enzymes: nausea o break down food substances  Diarrhea  Motility: o Lining of the small & large intestine cannot absorb o the process of moving food thru the system & mixing it water or digested food w digestive juices o  watery & frequent bowel movements o  changes food into a form our cells can use, or into  Dysentery waste to get rid of o Similar to diarrhea except pus, mucus, blood also excreted The Process of Digestion  Peptic Ulcer o Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum o Caused when excessive hydrochloric acid & pepsin digests a part of the stomach or duodenum wall o H. pylori – a bacteria; exacerbated by stress o However, recent studies suggest peptic ulcers may still be caused by stress in the absence of H. Pylori (Fink, 2011; Fuller-Thomson et al., 2011)  Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): inflammation of the intestinal tissue o Crohn’s disease  inflammation of the small & large intestine o Ulcerative Colitis  large intestine o Sores & bleeding leading to abdominal pain, fatigue, cramping, diarrhea, more bowel movements o Managed w medication, surgery, lifestyle (ex. stess- management)  Ppl w higher rates of stress can have higher rates of inflammation o Canada has highest incidence rates in the world  1 in 350 Canadians suffering from IBD  Saliva: 6. The Renal System o along w teeth, helps break down, soften & lubricate food Role of the Renal System  Stomach:  Development is controlled by the...  Females: 2 ovaries o Ovulation: 1 ovum released each month  If the ovum is not fertilized it is flushed out during menstruation o Ovaries also produce:  Estrogen (secondary sex characteristics)  Progesterone (prepares body for pregnancy)  Males: o Testes: produces Testosterone  Testosterone produces sperm & development of secondary sex characteristics Disorders of the Reproductive System  Maintaining the body’s fluid regulation  Maintaining a balance of potassium & sodium (electrolytes)  Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)  Consist of: o Herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, Chlamydia, o Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra HPV, AIDS  Removes excess water, electrolytes, waste products o HPV:  Maintains water balance  Now linked w some forms of oral, cervical cancers Disorders of the Renal System  Now a common infection that researchers are trying to reduce  Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)  Can lead to genital warts, cancer o Bladder infection  Now there are HPV vaccinations for both males o Bacteria enters urethra & females) o Pain, pelvic pain, pain during urination, blood in urine,  Sometimes ppl don’t take all 3 HPV doses excessive urination, feeling like one needs to urinate  Parents worried that it’s too early, don’t more often want to think about sexual interactions o Can lead to a kidney infection (by going up the system)  Chronic Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  Kidney disease associated w Hypertension o Severe abdominal pain, compromise fertility o Nephrons, the basic structural & fn’al units of the kidneys, are destroyed or damaged  Endometriosis o  the kidneys cannot fn properly o Endometrial lining of the uterus moves into the fallopian tubes (or abdominal cavity)  Kidney failure o Kidneys are not able to get rid of waste in the body  Cysts & Fibroids o Kidney dialysis: a technology used to clean the waste from the body; very stressful  Cancer  Might have to twice a week o Testicular cancer, prostate cancer; cancers of the cervix, o Kidney transplant uterus, ovaries (most lethal), endometrial lining (most common) 7. The Reproductive System  Infertility o Inability to conceive after 1 year of regular sexual intercourse w/o contraception; affects 7% of Canadian couples o In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) most widely used technology to assist in reproduction; ~24% success rate in Canada  Menopause o Not a disorder of the reproductive system; occurs when a woman’s reproductive years end o Unpleasant symptoms during the transition (tho there are cultural difs) o HRT was often used but not being given serious consideration Genetics & Health  We inherit 46 chromosomes from our biological parents (23 from each)  o 2 are the sex chromosomes  Mother carries X; Father carries both X & Y  Focal: Genetic Research o Source of infection remains at original site but sends  Big role in medical studies & psychology toxins to other parts of the body causing discomfort  Family Studies  Systemic: o Help determine if families are statistically more likely o affects numerous bodily systems or areas to develop a disorder  Primary infection may lead to secondary infection  Twin Research o If a genetic contribution, identical twins will share tImmunity same disorder more often than fraternal twins or  Immunity:
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