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PSY333 MAY 28.docx

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Nevena Simic

PSY333 MAY 28, 2012 HEALTH ENHANCING BEHAVIOURS CHAPTER 4 EXERCISE Physical activity – any sketal muscle contraction that results in an increased energy expenditure – any physical activity even fidgeting will use energy and burn calorie s Exercise – repetitive phy act or movement aimed at improving or mainting fitness or health 1. Type – identidies the physicological system used in a part activity – aerobic, strength, endurance and flexibility 2. Frequency – describes how much activity is performed over a period of time 3. Intensity – describes load imposed on physiological systems – how much word does each phys system have to do to perform activity some heavy some lighter – walking water more then surface – so walking stairs is more intense 4. Duration – temperal length of physical activity – how long – time Does type matter - Many diff types of exercise or physical activity..but physiologically there a re 5 forms of exercise - Resistrance realted first 2 - Isometric – contract muscle group against immovable object without movement in body (improves muscle strength) – no movement in body – improve muscel strength – holding an object – planking – gravity u need to hold it – contraction of muscle in arms and core but not moving if to move and out of – (improves muscle srenght) - 2. Isotonic – push up – place resistance on muscle by moving muscle groups example weigh lifting (improves stetgh and endureance) - 3. Isokinetic – place resistance that overloasds muscle groups through complete range of motion with variable resistance, needs special equipment (best for strength and resistance) Other two forms 1. Aerobic 2. Anaerobic - Energy for exercise comes from buring glucose and fatty acids – can be in the prescence of oxygen or not – before oxygen circulate in muscle or with oxygen in muscle - Aerobic – sustained exercise, prolonged oxy use – high intensity, long duration, high endurance – stimulates and strengthens heart and lungs – improves bodies oxy usage - Examples jogging, bicycling and swimming – prolonged high intensits Anearboci – high intensity, short duration, low endurance – creates deficit in 02 – example is sprinting – fast short distance Exercise physiology - Ability to perform physical work is dependet upon the ability of muscle to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy How exercise work - Muscles – source of energy that keeps everything going is atp – adenosine triphospahte - Biochemical way to store and use energy – adenine nucleotide bound to three phosphates – energy stored in the bond between the second and third phosphate group - Lift skin and show muscle – each muscle made up of strands of muscle and inside is made up of many more strands and inside two proteins actin and myosin work together to casue muscles to contract – myosin bulbious head along strand – bobs move actin down and casue muscle group to come together need atp How does create atp - Several systems to create atp - Work together in phases same time simultanelosy– dif forms of exercise use different systems, so a sprinter is getting atp in a completely different way from a marathon runner - Atp come from three different biochemical systems in the muscel in this order – phosphagen system Phosphagen system - Muscle cells contain high energy phosphate componund called creatin ephospahte - Phosphate group is removed from creatin phosphate by an enzyme called creatine kinase and is transferred to adp to form atp - Atp levels and creatine phosphagte levels = phosphogen system – supply energy needs of working muscle at a high rate but only for 8 to 10 seconds - Small supply of energy from phosphagen system only last 8 to 10 seconds Glycogen lactic acid system - Muscles have big reserves of a complex carb called glycogen (chain of glucose molecules) - Cells splits glycogen into glucose --- uses anaerobic metabolism (anaerobic means without oxy) to make atp and a byproduct called lactic acid from the glucose - 12 chemical reactions take place to make atp under this process, so it supplies atp at a slower rate then phospahgen system – produce atp lasts 90 seconds - 12 steps instead of one – ability to create energy from it is slower then phosphagen system - Amount of exercise limited but substrates - Draw on it for 1 min and a half Aerobic respiration - When oxygen is present glucose can be completely broken down into a carbon dioxide and water in a process called aerobic respiration - Glucose can come from three different places – remaining glycogen supplies in muscles - Breakdown of liver glycogen into glucose wich gets to working mskce muscle through bloodstrram - Absorption of glucose from food in the instestine which gets wto working muscel throught the bloodstreaqm Cont - In extreme case like starvation proteins can also be broken down int aa and used to make atp - First carbs fats and protein - Aerobic resp would use carbs first then faats and finally proteins - Produces atp at the slowest rate of the three systems - Supply atp for several hrs longer - Length of exercise and proportion of energy deleviery process enage - Creatine lot in short time of energy - Aneraobic glycosic – peaks at 40 and slows - Aerobic – 30 to 40 slow and slope up and sustain for long time depending on fat carb and proten Type - Sustained nature of aerobic exercise produces health beefits - Other forms of exercise are satisfying in theor own way but have less effect on overall fitness - Note on cal - Number of calories food is a easure of how much energythat food processes - A gram carb 4, prot 4, fat 9 - Our bodies burn calories through metabolic processes - Enzymes break down carbs into glucose and other sugars, fats into glycerol and fatty acids and proteins into aa - The mole transported through bloodstream to cells where they are either absorbed for immediate use or sent on to the finalstage of metbalosm in whichc theyare reacted with oxygen to release their store energy Type contd Exercise - Only 49 pecent of candians are at least modeeralty active during their leisure time - - modertate = 150 kcal of eergy per day or 1000 kcal/week - Physical actiiity is done at 3 to 5.9 times the intensity of rest - Common chores – wash wax care 45 – 60 min moderate - Gardening – 30 -45 min Contd - Inactivity = more common among women then men - Older less then younger adults - Lower vs higher incomes and edu levels, ses predictor - Aboriginal less vs non aboringial canadains Health benefits of exercise 1. Effects on cardiovascular system – strengthens heart muscle - lowers blood pressure – raises hdl good and lowers ldl bad – improve blood flow – increases hearts working capacity – net result increases cardovascualr fintees and endurance and reduce risk of heat attack and or stroke reduced stroke 2. Effects on weight – optimization of body weight – prevent or control non insulin dependent diabetes – prevent obesisty 3. Effects on muscle tone – improved physical work capacity – imorves and maintains of muscle tone and strength – increase in soft tissure and joint flexibility – prevent back pain – prevent osteoporosis 4. Effects on psych health- increased endorphins- morphine like chemical substances, decrease stress, analgesic reduce sensation of pain, elevates mood, increase feelings of well being – improved mood – reduce depression and anxiety – help mange stress The runners high study - Bases for sensation is opiods – class of endorphins published in 2008 in cerebral cortex - How to study it – Exercise imrive mood - Ruuners high – feeling of euphoria (elevated mood after running - Methods – 10 athletes - Materials – 2 horus of running 21.5 +- 4.7 km - Pet before and after running - Opiodergic ligand binds to opiod receptors in brain
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