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PSY333H1 (68)

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Nevena Simic

Lecture for Chapter 12 – Terminal Illness  In Canada – Leading cause of death was due to cancers nd o 2 heart diseases & stroke (cardiovascular issues) o running at op 5- chronic respiratory problems and accidents Death as a function of age  Causes of death vary over life cycle/stage When and how do people die?  Average Canadian life expectancy is 80.3 years o Compared w/ worldwide which is 78 years th  Beginning of 20 century was 47.3 years  why the huge increases in life expectancy? o Decrease infant mortality  1940s – 47 deaths/ 1000 live births  2006 – 6.7 deaths/ 1000 live births o Decrease death from acute illness Death in infancy or childhood  Infant mortality rate: ratio of deaths to live births ( 5.1/ 1000 births in Canadian)  Relatively high compared w/ Western Eurpoe o Used to be in 6 places but 24 in 2007  Effects of SES o 4.0 / 1000 (ratios) in richest neighbourhood o 6.5/ 1000 in poorest ( 2 and half infant extra from richest SES)  Effects of culture o First Nations > non-First Nations o event w/in first nations there is stratification of SES status Leading causes of Death  Birth to 1 year: congenital abnormalities & sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)  SIDS: 3 babies die/ week in Canada due to this o babies simply stop breathing o more likely to occur in :  lower class urban environments  when mom smoked during pregnancy  when baby is put to sleep on stomach  which is very easily modifiable behaviour  Back to sleep campaign ( 1999 )  put your babies to sleep on your back than stomach  reduced SIDS by ~50%  From Ages 1-15  the causes shifts to accidents (i.e. poisoning, falls – again these are things modifiable  importance of supervision , new mother education ) and childhood leukemia (cancer) o Leukemia: cancer of bone marrow  excess white blood cell + severe anemia ( good news - 80 % of survival rate today  for diagnosis – that majority of children don’t die from it ) o however there are some lingering side effects from treatment – particularly from radiation  cognitive developmental problems ironically - if its early detection and early radiation treatment because of development of brain neurons are happening at young age such as myelination  radiation problem show cognitive problem later in life, basis skills of reading are difficult acquired Children’s understanding of Death  Up to age of 5 death as “great sleep” o no understanding of death as final/ irreversible  because of it – has no fear – they are curious  Ages 5- 9  Death as final may develop o Still  most children fail to understand the biology of death o some children believe death is a shadowy figure ( devil or ghost)  Ages 9-10 – “death is universal & inevitable “ o understand processes that go along w/ death o realize that person will not return Death in Young Adulthood  leading causes of death for youth ( 15 – 24) : o 1. Unintentional injury (usually automobile accidents ) o 2. Suicide – depression & need to understand health issue in young adult o 3. cancer o 4. Homicide ( intentional injury)  leading causes of death for young black males o heart/ respiratory diseases & congenital abnormalities  Next to death of child  death of young adult seen as most trageic: o Wasted of life, robbed of chance to develop and mature  Diagnosis of terminal illness at this age o long and drawn out period of dying ( and sometimes painful)  because of fewer biological competitors  e.g. there are no other cardiac or respiratory conditions that exhaust their body except for this terminal disease Death in Middle Age  death becomes more realistic for two reasons: o 1. More common o 2. Development of chronic health problem that ultimately leads to death  Premature death : death that occurs before age 79 o Main causes is hearth attack or stroke ( brain attack – interruption of blood flow to brain ) o Death rates of the decline – attributed primarily to less smoking!  Midlife crisis o may occur in the 40s or 50s o stems from the realization of impeding death o set off by death of parent, friend, or bodily signs that one is aging  this fear of death may be symbolically acted out as other fears  sometimes abrupt life changes are a result of the midlife crisis : o from that death is impending – these changes are seen as trying to postpone death  i.e. feeling younger  going out to bars or clubs typically surrounded by younger crowd, Botox, fast cars (excess spending) , romantic attention to younger crowd Death in Old Age  Death may be easier in old age o Have “Readiness to die”  Elderly have seen friends and relatives dies  have come to terms w/ issues associated w/ death  such as loss of appearance and failure to meet goals  Typically die of degenerative disease ( cancer, stroke, heart failure, or physical decline)  because these diseases leads to susceptibility to infectious disease and organ failure  BUT  have greater chance of achieving death w/ dignity because of the “preparations of death” (e.g. put in will, memorial, known how to spend time remaining)  women live longer than men  82 vs. 77 years Death as a Functions of Gender ( women live longer than men)  life expectancy increasing both men and women equal rate  so line is not going to meet anytime soon gender diff exists all the same years  Why? 1. Women are biologically more fit a. more male than female fetuses ( when sperm and egg meet – more likely to male) b. BUT - more males stillborn/ miscarried c. more male infants die d. male death rate is higher at all ages of life 2. Men engage in more risky behaviours a. more likely to drown, get shot, die in car accident 3. Eff
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