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Lecture

PSY333 - Chapter 10.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY333H1
Professor
Nevena Simic
Semester
Summer

Description
PSY333 Chapter Notes Chapter 10 Pain and Its Management Chronic back pain is one of the most common causes of disability in Canada Chronic pain, that is a pain lasting longer than 6 months or long after an injury has healed, has been called a silent epidemic affecting 1 in 10 Canadians, with rates even higher among those 65+ Many Canadians who suffer from chronic pain also have one or more other chronic health condition Costs in health care utilization and lost productivity add up to about $10 billion annually Over $4 billion is spent annually on over-the-counter medicine, with much of this used for the relief of pain o Those with chronic pain use pain relievers, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills 2-4 times more than those without chronic pain Pain is the symptom most likely to lead an individual to seek treatment o Its typically considered of secondary importance to MDs, the cause of the pain is more important People with chronic pain are most likely to experience anxiety and depression Inadequate relief from pain is the most common reason for patients requests for euthanasia or aid in dying o Patients fear pain in illness and treatment the most Pain is fundamentally a psychological experience, and the degree to which it is felt and how incapacitating it is depends on its interpretation Pain has a substantial cultural component members of some cultures report pain sooner and react more intensely to it than individuals of other cultures o Compared to European Canadians, Chinese reported a lower tolerance for pain in experimentally induced pain Certain ways of coping with pain can influence how pain is interpreted and therefore affect how individuals experience and report pain o Pain catastrophizing is when people magnify their pain which leads to more dramatic pain reports and has also been established as a risk factor for prolonged pain and disability o In contrast, resilience (toughness) appears to be protective for pain catastrophizing, as individuals who are resilient are able to bounce back from moments of intense pain by experiencing positive emotions o People who catastrophize pain are more likely to attend to and estimate greater pain from the pain behaviors displayed by others One barrier to the treatment of pain is the difficulty people have describing it objectively o Typically draw on a informal vocabulary like shooting pain or throbbing pain or constant dull pain Pain behaviors are observable behaviors that arise as manifestations of chronic painPSY333 Chapter Notes o Four basic types of pain behaviors have been identified: (1) facial and audible expressions of distress; (2) distortions in posture or gait; (3) negative affect; and (4) avoidance of activity Pain is now viewed as a complex biopsychosocial event involving psychological, behavioral, and physiological components Researchers from UBC and Dalhousie found that children who expressed their pain verbally reported more pain and the tendency to make pain verbalizations was associated with age (with older children less likely to make verbalizations) o Daughters pain reporting behaviors may be directly influenced and shaped by their mothers behavior towards them (not so much for sons) The experience of pain is a protective mechanism to bring into consciousness the awareness of tissue damage o Scientists have distinguished among three kinds of pain perception: the first is mechanical nociception (pain perception) that results from mechanical damage to the tissue of the body; the second is thermal damage, or the experience of pain due to temperature exposure; the third is referred to as polymodal nociception, a general category referring to pain that triggers chemical reactions from tissu
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