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Lecture 3

PSY333 Lecture 3.pdf

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Nevena Simic

PSY333 Lecture 3 Today is about health promotion. Hand sanitizing. Health promotion: Precess enabling people to increaser control over, and to imporove, their health Good health is collective and personal - individual: develop good health habits early in life and have them continue through adulthood - COLLECTIVE: - medical practitioner: teach people how to acvhieve this lifestyle and help those ‘at risk’ teacher educator, educatoe about proper and good health habits to achieve optimal health. - Psychologist: development of interventions to help people practice healthy behaviours and chage poor ones. - Community/Nation general emphasis on good health. Patterns of disease changed dramatically over the past 70 years. Perevalence of acute diseases has gone down but the preventable disorders have gone up. Clear role of behavioural facrots in disease Approximately ½ deaths in Canada are caused by modifiable behaviours *smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity). Health behaviours are behaviours undertaken to enhance or maintain our health, becomes HEALTH HABIT, health related behaviour that is so well established that we perform it almost automatically. Habits develop in childhood and stabilize around 11 or 12. i.e wearing a seatbelt - developed initially b/c reinforced by specific positive outcomes eventually becomes independent reduce death due to lifestyle-related diseases delay time of death; increasing longevity and life expectancy of population We spend more than a trillion dollars that is spen on health and illness. If we found a way to prevent illness we would reduce those costs. Two tasks: - getting people to change problematic behaviours o weight loss programs - prevent people from developing poor health habits in the first place o smoking prevention in teens Factors that influence health behaviours 1. socioeconomic factors 2. age: childhood, teenagehood, adulthood 3. gender no clear winner a. eating: f- more healthy eating but more unhealthy dieting 4. Ethnic a. smoking: aboriginal youth- 3x> Canadian average b. diabetes: aboriginal peoples c. abdominal fat: chinese vs. European descent Canadians i. greater risk of heat disease, hypertension, diabetes. Health behaviour high in childhood, dips in adolescence, comes back in adulthood, dips again in old age. 5. Values: ex exercise and women in different cultures 6. Personal control a. Health locus of control: perception that one’s health is under personal control, is controlled by powerful others uch as physicians, or is deteremined by external factors includeing chance i. Personal control= better health habbits 7. Social influence: -+ve 8. Personal goals 9. Perceived symptoms smoker who develops a cough attributes the cough to smoking or illness if they attribute it to smoking they are more likely to cut down. 10.Access to health care services – Pap smears in Nicaragua 11.Place- rural = less access to services, poorer eating habits, lower activity at leisure ime, and higher rates of smoking. 12.Cognitive belief that behaviours are beneficial Health habits are very difficult to change. - different habits are controlled by different factors. Factors that control a health behavior can change. People are more likely to overeat with others than on their own… you don’t say. Health habits influenced bye early socialization ​Role models – 1 parents, later friends Health promotion efforts capitalize on educational opportunities to prevent poor health habits from developing - teachable moment certain times are better fo teaching particular health practices tha notehrs - window of vulnerability- for smoking and drug use that occurs in junior high school when the students are first exposed to thes habits among their peers teenagers and aboriginals are at risk groups people do not always perceive their reisk correctly (unrealistic optimism) people tend to view their poor health behaviours as widely shared by their healthy behaviours as more distinctive when people see others engaging in the same unhealthy practice, they may perceive a lower risk to their health Ethiscs- lowe risk cases; psychological problems develop; blame Educational appeals: - communication should be colourful and vivd Social Cognition: - communicator shoud be expert, prestigious, beliefs that people hold aobut particular trustworthuy,likeable and similar to audience health behaviour - strong agrugmets should not buried in the middle motivate decisions (primacy and recency effects). - Messages should be short, clear and direct about behaviour - State conclusions explicitly - Extreme messages are good up to a point, may lead to hopelessness
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