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Lecture 2

PSY336 Lecture 2 Subjective vs. Eudaimonic Well-Being.docx

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Dan Dolderman

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Lecture 2 Notes: Subjective vs. Eudaimonic Well-Being - Chase after money and security and your heat will never unclench care about other people’s approval and you will be their prisoner. Do your work then step back. The only path to serenity – Lao Tzu Can Money Buy You Happiness? - Yes: Money provides you with the opportunity, alleviation of stress, experience, diminishing returns - Spending money on experience is different from spending money on materials - No: Unless you enjoy what you are doing to acquire money, it can be stressful - There is no guarantee that poverty prevents happiness or that richness produces happiness - How much you spend your resources in trying to obtain wealth influences your happiness; pursuing money as an end in itself (leaving out other nourishing aspects of life) - Research; research in US or Canada show very correlation between money and happiness (0.1 variation; 1% of population) - If study in the international level, see correlation of 0.8 between money and happiness; alleviation of negativity (stress), not meeting their basic necessities - Cluster of groups in high happiness and cluster of groups in low happiness; within these groups there is no correlation but between these groups is why we have 0.8 correlation - Specific point at the $25,000 in which divides the two clusters of groups apart; below $25,000 no basic necessities met vs. G20 type nations have basic necessities met (capitalism going around in the world; logic of capitalism) - The pursuit of wealth for citizens in developed nations does not produce happiness for them (running out of juice when basic infrastructure and fundamental needs are established) - Survey of the extremely rich; 25% of them state that they are very happy - Survey of the factory workers owned by these extremely rich; 21% of them state they are very happy - Child development; children of the very wealthy have the similar proportion of anxiety/substance abuse as the at risk children of society (maybe parental neglect, unprepared for society, dysfunctional values, analogous to kids at Christmas, pressure to succeed, loss of autonomy) Conditional parenting love commonly seen -Change in happiness over life; people get wealthy as they age (their income increases) but across the same 50 year period of this study, the happiness line is flat, and even very slightly negative - People get richer, but they do not get happier - From $50,000 to $70,000 income increase, after a week later, they are happier but after a months later they return to normal (it does not make them happier) - Affective forecasting; people expect that changes/circumstances will have an impact (Ex. When you are angry at someone now, you expect that you will be angry at the person 10 years from now) - Tenure; once you get tenure, you have the job for life (academic freedom). Affective forecasting comes by graduate students predicting they are really happy if they get tenure and extremely sad if they do not get tenure (immediately after, observation shows this prediction) - 3 months later however, whether you get tenure or don’t get tenure makes no difference in happiness Lottery Winners vs.Accident Victim - Lottery winner vs. accident victim study (1975); sample of lottery winners and accident victims (paraplegic/quadriplegic) and given happiness scale (5-point scale) - Lottery winners had 4.0 happiness scale, control (non-lottery winners) 3.82 in happiness scale, and accident victims 2.96 (this was asked 1 year after) - There is very little difference between lottery winner vs. controls and accident victims not as low as predicted (remarkable adaptability from accident) Humans are incredibly adaptable (this is good for negative things in life) - Negative side of adaptability is that you will never improve (sucking back to the baseline) - Mundane pleasures; normal everyday activities (laughing at jokes, coffee with friends) control reported mundane pleasure as 3.8, accident victims as 3.5, and lottery winners as 3.3 (higher level of stimulation) - Explanations; habituation effects that was experienced by lottery winners (psychological habituation of what you are used to) Deviation from the baseline determines whether happy or sad, so shift in baseline results in shift in everyday contrast - Difference in treatment towards lottery winners; stresses come into play for these lottery winners - Social comparison; lottery winners’ social comparison changes and the standards of social comparison increases (keeps them locked into state of unhappiness) Self-Determination Theory (Ryan/Deci) - Assumption that we have fundamental human needs that must be fulfilled and if we don’t, variety of insecurities and negatives will arise - One of the biggest fundamental human needs is autonomy - Ryan/Deci comes from the side of eudaimonic well-being - Meeting your needs is where variability and well-being comes from - American dream; life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness and Ryan/Deci hypothesized that wealth may have a backfire because it prevents you from obtaining fundamental human needs (The Dark Side of American Dream) - How important is this to you? Self- Report; intrinsic goals (self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling) and extrinsic goals (money, financial success) - Affiliation; relationship with friends/family | Community feeling; philanthropy, giving back to the community) - Measured for self actualization, vitality, (self-actualization/vitality measure of happiness) depression scale, anxiety scale, and physical illnesses - Need motivation out of the context in order to see the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic goals (telling the difference b/w the two without the influence of motivation) - Results; people that are more intrinsically determined report more self-actualization, higher vitality, less depression, non-significant anxiety, and less physical illnesses - Exactly the opposite for extrinsically determined individuals; this shows that the basis of American Dream backfires on an individual’s happiness (American Dream does not pay off) - Pursuit of wealth in the end in itself actually has a negative effect on the person Materialistic Value Orientation (Ryan/Deci/Kasser) - People with central identity, value, and attitudes of materialism - The more a person values this (MVO), the less life-satisfaction, less happiness, less subjective well-being - MVO has virtually all psychologically related disorder (depression, anxiety, divorce, increase probability of mental disorder (seen in results from nations after nations) - Explanations; MVO individuals have grown up from environment of MVO centred contexts - MVO is greatly influenced by individuals’insecurity - Family environments of poor parenting show increase in insecurity and higher MVO; more negative comments, higher MVO / the less warm the parents are perceived by children, higher MVO - Children who do not feel autonomy show higher MVO parents - Mortality salience induction experiments (thinking about death); when people are thinking about death, hi
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