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Lecture 3

PSY336 Lecture 3 Goals and Motivation.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY336H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman

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Lecture 3 Notes: Goals and Motivation - To change one’s life start immediately. Do it flamboyantly. No exceptions – William James - Goal: I would like to accomplish my fitness program - Difficult to set a goal b/c sometimes we don’t know what we want or b/c they are overwhelmed by many goals that they want (setting too many goals) * Zen Habits; Blog for habit change. One of his insight is and is found in many of positive psychology writing is to try to do one thing or as close as to one thing at a time - After about a month, it becomes internalized and becomes habitual; once it becomes habitual, it becomes automatic and it without the friction and drag Why Have One Goal at a Time - Reason to have one goal; when you are setting a goal, you are going against the current mode of situation, environment, commitments, you life (friction, drag) - If you are trying to change into a different person, you are going against these friction/drag - Self-regulatory reason; we only have certain amount of will power and if we flex it too much (have several goals), you will be worn out - It is really hard to stay motivated if you don’t feel success and competence - Competence; one of the necessary needs of self-determination theory After it becomes a habit; about a month, this one thing becomes a habit for you; as a habit, less exposure of the failure of your competence Big Problem in Your Life: Challenge in Life - Issue in life; state the “weighty” problem in your life - Possible solution to your issue; things that you think might ameliorate or help reduce the problem - Scale of 1 to 5; how much confidence you have to change or solve the problem in your life - Feeling bored? Feeling unenthusiased? Feeling personal growth and improvement? - How self-determination theory is in play for feeling personal growth and improvement; need for relatedness, need for competence, need for autonomy - Don’t have enough time to do what they want to do? Wasting time? - How much time do you really need to relax/chill? - Everybody have different starting points; socioeconomic status, health, genetics, inheritance The Notion of Thrownness - Throwness; life throws at you in a particular lifestyle, life situation, environment, reality (no choice) - Some people will be in better position to self-improve, enhance because of difference in throwness, thus, it is difficult to evaluate and compare person to person - Your ship wrecks and are stranded in the middle of the ocean; you have nowhere to go but only where the wind and ocean takes you – thrownness - But if you have rotor and motor for your ship, you are able to have some control but only a little difference/influence after only a day – you will still be in the same spot at the ocean -After a week, month, and year then you will be much different position in the ocean - The more time it goes by with consistent application, the more you are able to change your trajectory and thrownness - If you respect that you are only in an ocean and give enough time on the right orientation, it is going to okay rather than thinking of how you are such a failure for not being great and influential in life - Tools for you to use in the ocean is so easy to understand but there is a huge difference in understanding and apply things – Understanding the abstract is the starting point but application is the motion - When trying to apply the tools that you learn, respect your thrownness and remember that you will find life changes with a consistent application for several months and years Why Do People Do Things that are Unnecessary (Wasting Time) - Poor behaviour selection; we are already doing things that are unfulfilling, thus, we turn to immediate sources of entertainment - Easy; a lot of things that we distract ourselves with is easy and does not require too much attention (immediate sense of gratification; failure to consider long-term goals) - Positive Feedback Cycles; more stress leads to trying to cope by distracting yourself, which goes feedback into stress - Low Risk; low risk at watching TV or surfing online, you do not fail at doing these distracting activities - Self-Handicapping; doing this as an excuse, trying to protect oneself from our lack of ideal success - Lack of deadlines; not doing things in immediate gratification, not thinking about the long-term - Media; celebrities are either portrayed as inspirational (you can be like this too) or as to put down them (comparing yourself to that makes you feel much better) - The media frames you to say that you can be better and that you suck at this moment * Social Norms; one of the biggest things that make us do things that are distracting (through the influence of media) Changing the Habit - Changing your habit starts with poor behaviour selection – Self-Determination Theory - Overjustification; (the children marker experiment study; rewarded children played less with the markers) contradicts that rewards increases performance of a specific behaviour (also harsh punishments actually backfires; robot experiment – children who were in the harsh punishment condition played with the robot) - People form an internal justification for their behavior – “why didn’t I play with the robot?” for the mildly punishment children actually internalized that robots were “uncool” - This laid the theoretical groundwork for self-determination theory; 1960s - Intrinsic motivation works better for behaviour than extrinsic motivation; to be the most creative, best, successful - Extrinsic motivation usually backfires by undermining the intrinsic motivation; the more you extrinsically reward the person, the less the person would perform that behaviour - But our modern society instead of going in the line of intrinsic motivation, it orients toward extrinsic motivation; rewards/punishment of behaviour became the norm (parenting, education, businesses) - Ex. In business, an employee who is working poorly were punished for their ill-performance - Extrinsic motivation can work in a very short-term and a narrow domain (Ex. Climate change) - Hard to sustain a lifestyle with the use of extrinsic motivation - It is not that behaviourism do not work but behaviourism do work especially if it is a simple, less creative, less challenging activity * Book called Drive; maximize profits by motivation but not by reward/punishments Self-Determination Theory - Motivation starts with behaviour selection - Continuum of motivation; from intrinsic to not motivated and the axis within the continuum is the axis of autonomy (internalization) -Autonomy is the single most important factor for internalization - Intrinsic motivation; motivation to do the thing because you love doing the thing (self-justifying), you find it awesome, you love it, you are interested in it – self-sustaining and self-justifying 1) Choosing the Goal (Behaviour selection); what am I doing? Why am I doing it? – If the reason why you are doing it is a superficial thing, than you should change it – immediately challenging what you are doing - Therefore it makes sense to change the thing that is a superficial thing - Picking the right things in the
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