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PSY341H1 Lecture 1

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Hywel Morgan

PSY341H1S L1; July 03, 2013  Infanticide common (killing your children) Introduction: The History of Childhood Psychology  Child slavery common  Assault on children common  Psychopathology = Mental illness  Pestilence, the plague  We’re talking about psychopathologies that are first  Freud saw this as coping mechanism diagnosed in childhood or adolescence o Not concerned about children since so much disease –  Interview = most common method of determining the mortality rate was very high psychopathology o Doesn’t work in children since language skills less 16 , 17 Century & Renaissance developed  By the renaissance – higher regard o  use observation instead  Alleviation of the plague  Written essays:  Once weaned off, put to work, expected to care for selves o Thought papers based on a Q about the in-class video  Married by 7 yrs old o Current issues in psychology o Considered “Little Adults” o Submit the first one early so you have feedback  Paintings: children dressed in smaller version of adult clothes o Hand in by Aug 7  Working as soon as they articulate o A couple sentences over a page is okay  Apprenticeship before teen yrs o Can append a page to cite references  As soon as they can live w/o constant care  Cite lecture, textbook – but are secondary sources 17 century (1600s)  Find research!  Change in 17 century in regard: o APA format (but no title page needed) o Hard copy handed in to prof  Childhood seen as a separate stage of life  Introduction of games for children o Highly sophisticated writing o Some still played today (ex. ring around the rosie, o Don’t miss the big picture o Use additional information hide and seek, marco polo, hopscotch)  Use primary sources for higher marks  Interest in providing an innocent beginning for these new human beings  Review Articles are secondary sources o Focus the topic & do extra research  Significant interest in western culture of raising “good o Impress impress impress!!! Christians” o Due to want for recruits to Church o Use PsychInfo database  Indoctrinating children to the state A) A history of childhood o Want soldiers  Idea of a “parent”, still not a well accepted concept  Child psych is a relatively new field th o Only been around for 50-60 yrs  Towards 18 century: o Didn’t become a profession until 1960s & 1970s o Family is changing from an institution (by which property is handed down) to a more cohesive  Father of psychology = Freud o Said adult psychological disorders were unresolved institution w parents & children childhood conflicts 18 & 19 Centuries  Dawn of psych – adult disorders, even to early 1900s  Concept of childhood itself is new  Education changing o Most notably comes from philosophical concepts from  Children are plastic, malleable, dependable John Locke: “children are blank slates that must be o Not always seen this way  Children weren’t seen separately from adults even in ate molded to make better human beings”  Competing philosopher: Russo 1800s o Suggested infants are “noble savages”  DSM IV – 10 types of disorders on childhood & adolescent psychopathology Late 19 & Early 20 century: o Changed slightly in DSM V  Creation of institutes specifically for care & protection of o DSM (early 50s) – 2 disorders that clearly you can identify from childhood: Autism, Mental Retardation children  Although they were often harsh & punitive  Psychologist: have PhD or PsyD (graduate school)  Fictional version written by Charles Dickens (Oliver Twist) o PhD is more research background as a scientist, PsyD is more clinical application 20 Century Timeline o In US have admission privileges (can admit a patient  Most notable to hospital)  Psychiatrist: have MD (medical school)  Only in the last century that child welfare has evolved to the point where children enjoy special rights o Taught physiology, can prescribe restricted drugs o Main dif is training & privileges  1912: Canadian parliament established children’s bureaus to  We’re talking about western culture investigate child welfare o Laws enacted to investigate & protect child welfare  Farther back – lower level of child care  Family, education changes  1948: courts in Canada decided that rights of adults should be applied to children th  1960s: government enacted laws for disabled & retarded 15 century: Dark Ages / Medieval Times children  1979: UN (United Nations) adopted 1979 as the year of the o Ppl interested in this development in childhood child o By certain ages, expected to have certain intellectual o Charter Right: born heathly,l ive in healthy envt, live & cognitive abilities: Milestones in family whose basic needs are met, receive o Age 2: first words continuous & loving care at home and in school, o 9 months: walk acquire intellectual emotional skills for effective  Scientists were beginning to develop a Set of Developmental citizenship, receive appropriate care and treatment Norms facilities which meet the children’s needs are kept as o Intellectual abilities that children should have closely as possible in the child’s social centre developed by a certain age o Not all countries able to live up to this o Began to collect data, statistics o Taiwan is not a member of the UN o France: Alfred Benet developed IQ test (intelligence  Pre-2005: Switzerland not in UN quotient – a fraction)  If exactly the same intellectual age of all kids B) The development of childhood psychopathology as a field of your chronological age, the fraction is 1, the percentage is 100% the same  History of psychopathology is largely adult  Usually labeled a psychopathology when it begins to affect o Stanford Benet Intelligence test: compares the norms other ppl of chronological age (denominator) to intellectual age (numerator) o In childhood, usually diagnosed when they go to school  IQ = (intellectual age / chronological age) x 100  In infancies, psychopathologies often spontaneously remit (all 2 major paradigms: of a sudden go away on their own) o Ex. eating disorders – life threatening o Earliest views – caused by evil spirits Psychoanalysis  Internal psychological conflicts of early childhood as the  Hippocrates – suggested had an organic origin – connection btwn brain pathology & mind pathology origins of mental illness o Gestault argument – are you the some of your parts? o If not resolved  stagnate at childhood stages  psychopathology forms o A start of dark ages, no more science in Greece til 1800s  Kraepelin: Need for categorizing & classifying, need diagnosticonditioning & Behaviorism  Lumped together since based on principles of conditioning & categories o Believed in organic view of psychological disorders learning o Seen as Father of the classification system – ppl w  Pavlov & Thorndike developed ideal methods by which to study children’s bhvr since nonverbal similar symptoms being grped together o Allowed researchers to look at causes of syndromes o Also to show how children learn o Syndromes – grps of symptoms  Folklore than Skinner but his own children in the Skinner box o Figured it was the easiest way to teach them o Very little written on childhood except for on Mental Retardation  Evolved into the paradigm of Behaviorism – termed by  Widespread, common, very obvious Watson  Historically treated w disdain o Founded the 1 psychology department in north  Were institutionalized America (at UofT, and also at Harvard) o Stimulus-Response connections Mental Retardation  Cognitive-behavioral method very effective for certain  Dif types, dif causes, dif symptoms children psychopathologies  Two main symptoms: reduced cognitive capacity (low 3 major paradigm (later in 20 century): Humanistic intelligence), lack of adaptive bhvr (ability to take care of self,  In middle of 19 century: began to have enlightened views,  Requires sophisticated introspection more interest  Too sophisticated for children o Coincided w discovery of mechanisms of conditioning  Thorndike discovered operant conditioning D) Modern child psychopathology o At about this time, ppl became more sympathetic to  By 1920s & 1930s, in US & Canada – university sponsored those suffering from mental retardation nurseries set up as research envts o Became more optimistic about treatment – thought o Often at low or no cost they can now teach ppl w/o conscious introspection o Parents agree to allow children to be involved in o However a couple of decades later these expts failed research in child development  Genetics discovered in 20 century – view became pessimistic  1940s: distinct childhood disorders becoming categorized & o  Routinely institutionalized recognized o Mental Retardation & Childhood Psychosis (now C) Conceptualizations & influences of child psychopathology in referred to as Autism, was first called Infantile Autism the 20 century by Leo Kanner) th  By first couple of decades of 20 century, as an outgrowth of  Dr. Leo Kanner – physician interest in mental retardation, mental testing movement o Did significant amt of research in 40s & 50s on child began in Europe (then US) psychopathology o Frequently referred to as Father of Child Psychology  Realized there is intellectual development o Set up the systematic study of childhood o 3% of children have ADHD psychopathology o Inappropriate inattention o Set up clinics, looked at norms, coined terms, said dif o Hyperactivity disorders started in childhood  Most notable o Set up childhood psychological disorder clinics – only o Impulsivity interested in treating children  Centre for ADHD in Massachusetts  1940s: Psychology exists, before it was more Psychiatry  Hard to distinguish what is typical of normal boys o Psychology pre1940 would’ve been called behavioral o 40-50% of boys classified as aggressive, impulsive scientist o Bhvr rating scale or questionnaire: o Benet, Watson...  Use ratings from parents & teachers o Beginning of WWII – wa
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