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Lecture 2

LECTURE 2.docx

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Hywel Morgan

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Lecture 2 TA OFFICE HOURS - Sabrina papers + midterm Ramsey Wright - Rachel final exam no office hours DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY - in our society we prefer the growing child to be above the statistical average in almost all aspects of development - a baby thats born below average birth weight we often refer to as premature, or abnormal - baby thats born above average birth weight is healthy - but ABOVE average is ABNORMAL - even though we prefer this above average in almost all aspects of development, everything above average is abnormal, but we typically refer to it as healthy - the introduction of developmental norms (averages) are statistics that are collected for particular ages - an individual data point, a single child, is compared to these norms - the introduction of these norms, milestones, has made it possible to assess the progress or development of children as they grow - 3 things that we need to consider o exactly what constitutes normal development? The collection of data of the development of norms has helped us understand what normal development possibly is o factors affecting the development there are multiple factors that affect development 2 of which weve discussed already in general bio and environment o methodological and interpretive limitations that was past of your task on paper 1 consider the methodological interpretations of diagnosis and subsequently treatment as well NORMAL DEVELOPMENT: What is normal or abnormal development? - 4 general principles of development*KNOW THIS* o direction: development occurs from head to tail look at a newborn, the head is as large as the torso it has developed in utero but not the case for an adult physical development occur from the central axis to the periphery head and torso developing more quickly than the hands/feet/limbs o progression: proceeds in 2 ways from general to specific: most salient way to observe this development from general to specific is in the infants pain reflex if you apply a painful stimuli to a newborns hand, you see a reflexive response, but you see a qualitatively different reflex in infants then do adults the response you see in infancy, is reflexive but very general in infancy you see the entire body withdraw (general) adults dont show that, they show a much more specific reflex, i.e. only withdraw the hand do not have conscious control over any other this, but in adulthood it develops to be much for specific synchronous, occurs in stages grows from gen to spec. asynchronous growth: you also develop asynchronously growth occurs a little at a time, and then ALL of a sudden i.e. puberty, this is where development occurs at different rates and times o personal & social: from infancy through to adolescence occurs from undifferentiated (not different) and dependent the only way to differentiate gender in babies in the colour of the clothes otherwise they look undifferentiated infants are extremely dependent on their caregivers we are somewhat unique as a species, that we grow physically and cognitively quite slowly and become independent of caregivers very slowly but it does proceed from undifferentiated and dependent to distinctive and self dependent with more self control too o maturation and readiness: this principle requires qualitative physiological alterations in size for child to learn certain cognitive tasks growth must occur in the brain before certain tasks can be brought on bored there must be a physiological maturation in order for infant/child to be ready to learn new tasks trying to teach a child a task before the child has matured to the point where the brain can learn or understand that information is useless Factors affecting development - heredity and environment o the zeitgeist right now (biology) o in interaction with the environment o human traits wont be expressed unless there are appropriate environments, and given different environments they are expressed different o we are confident, that schizophrenia has a bio cause and seems to be partially genetic however you inherit a predisposition Twin studies reared apart show the concordance rate 50% - clearly biological disorder, yet the concordance is not 100% - there is something about the environment that contributes to this disorder we think that this may be the case for all traits o so if youve inherited a gene, it may or may not express depending on the environment - temperament o does indeed seem to be genetically inheritedo what constitutes you biologically/genetically contributes to disease, behaviour, youre bio make up they way you interact with environment o one of the ways that is clearly influenced by genes in temperament o seems to be something you are born with, it is the way in which you interact with the environment o proto-personality personality hasnt developed in infancy o even from birth, we see the expression of a temperament o seems to be wired in o the way in which you interact with your environment seems to be built in o has an emotional component o we can classify infant temperament into 3 categories easy, difficult, slow to warm up good news for parents is most infants fall into easy or slow to warm up these are the extremes infants show both temperaments infants with a difficult temperament are often described as having an infant condition (not on DSM iv) called cholic infant that is difficult difficult to soothe, always crying, vomiting, restless, wont sleep difficult for parent to deal with constantly not a well recognized disorder - just seem to have difficult temperament perhaps 15-20% easy infants: very easy to soothe, perfect baby, pleasure to be a
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