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PSY341- lec 06.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Hywel Morgan

 AAMR  Current way of thinking intellectually disasbled  The arc- the other organization for intellectually developmentally disabled- the association for retarded citizens  AACAP-group of physicians- the child and adolescence psychiatry  We are stuck with dsm 4- which defines MR solely as an intellectual impairment  A person must have both significantly low IQ and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life  Vast majority of children are diagnosed with mild form- they can learn and partially lead an independent life  Certain skills are important in adopting behaviour- the are daily living skills such as getting dressed, washroom, communication skills and social skills with peers, family members and others  Assess using IQ test- intellectual developmental disability based on 3 criteria 1. Iq 2. Adaptive skills 3. Present before the age of 18  MR is prevalent in about 3% of the pop.  Mental retardation may not be readily apparent  13%- iq less than 50 have serious problems in functioning  78%- moderate  There are 3 steps how MR is diagnosed by American psychological association 1. A qualified person gives one more standardized intelligent test- psychologist or psychiatrist- standardized adaptation tests- can be administered by occupational therapist as well- important these are administered on individual basis 2. To describe the person’s strengths and weekneses across 4 dimension:  Intellectual and adaptive behaviour skills  Psychological and emotional considerations  Physical and/or ethiological considerations  Environmental considerations 3. What level adaptive skills is? It requires a interdisciplinary team (psychiatrists, nurses, occupational therapists) and this team works to determine the needed supports across these 4 dimensions. Each support that is identified as intensity: intermittent, limitant, enxtensive, provasive  Intermittent- support as needed, only in specific situations  Limited- across life time but limited on time for which that support is required  Extensive- support needed in a life area (home, work) not limited on time- usually on daily basis  Provasive- significant support level- support on multiple areas  MR on research perspective is very difficult to understand because there are multiple causes- 100 causes  Common causes and categories 1. Genetic condition- result from abnormality from gene inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other disorders during pregnancy (tetrogens, chemicals, infections, radiations)- the most common that lead to MR is down syndrome- more likely to occur in mothers over 35, another common inherited fagile syndrome, pku syndrome 2. Problems during pregnancy- physical growth of the nervous system can be disrupted from alcohol (#1 cause), malnutrition, viral infections can interfere with neuronal migration, influenza and schizophrenia in adult, rebulla  HIV- baby becomes hiv + mostly at birth  Herpes- 3. Problems at birth- viral infections during birth, (HIV, herpes virus,), lack of oxygen (umbilical cord around neck, difficult birth), premature birth is also a predictor of mental retardation 4. Problems after birth- viral infections (chicken pox, measiles), accidents major cause of mental retardation, poisonous substances 5. Cultural and social deprivation- malnutrition can have cognitive
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