PSY341H1S Lecture 2: Developmental
Abnormal vs. normal development, we prefer the growing child to
be above the statistical average in almost all aspects of development
Babies born below average birth weights (7lbs) are referred to as
premature or abnormal; above we refer to as healthy (above
average, which is technically abnormal as it strays from the norm)
What constitutes normal development?
What factors effect development?
Methodological and interpretation limitations of diagnosis and
4 general principles of development:
1. Direction: in terms of stature the first body part to develop is the
head; it goes from head to tail because the head develops in utero,
wherein the head is the same size as the torso at birth. Physical
development occurs from the central axis to the periphery
2. Progression: proceeds in 2 ways: from general to specific, very
visible in the pain reflex. If you apply a moderately painful stimuli to an infant, you see a qualitatively different reflex in infants than in
adults. The response you see in infants is very general. You see the
entire body withdraw from the painful stimuli. Adults don’t show
that reflex, they are more specific. They withdraw a specific portion
that is exposed to the stimuli. Asynchronize growth is the other
proceeding way (specific to general). For example, puberty.
Development occurs at different rates and times.
3. Personal and Social: occurs from undifferentiated (meaning not
different) to distinctive and self-dependent. Newborn infants are
very dependent on their caregivers. We grow slowly both
cognitively and physically.
4. Maturational and Readiness: requires qualitative physical
alterations in size for kids to learn certain cognitive tasks. Growth
must happen in brain before being able to complete certain tasks.
Trying to teach a child a task before they are matured is useless.
Factors that effect development:
1. Biology/hereditary Concordance rate for twins reared apart with precursors for
schizophrenia is 50%. There is something about the environment
that contributes to the disorder
Clearly influenced in genes; something that you are born with. It is
the way you interact with the environment. It is referred to as proto-
personality. Because even from infancy you see the expression of a
temperament. It has a clear emotional component as well.
3 types of temperaments: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm up,
wherein most fall into easy or slow-to-warm up
Cholic: infants that are difficult to soothe, always crying, vomiting,
restless, and won’t sleep. It is not in the DSM-IV TR. 15-20% of
Temperament also falls into 2 different categories: introverts and
3. Parent-Child Interactions
5. Peer Relations Development arrests when there isn’t an affective bond with a
parent or a caregiver and if it doesn’t occurs, there is no
development – cognitively or physically
The lack of emotional bonding is what arrests physical
development, not a lack of physical stimuli (i.e. food, water)
You should know the names of these experimenters and their
experiments: Lorenz, Harlow (the infant monkeys that had no
mother but a barbwire )
Windows of opportunity
More likely to be delayed physiologically and detached emotionally
if you are not taken care of
Stems into conduct disorder, and asocial personality if the conduct
disorder is not treated. This becomes a part of who you are, it can
be treated by not cured. There is a critical period where they may be
saved. This disorder is called reactive attachment disorder.
Resilience: ability to recover from adverse circumstances. Playtime, seek out father. Stressed out, seek mother. In terms of
intellectual development, it is best to have a mother and a father
figure. Not necessarily in the same home
Next to family, school is the next more important fact in
development and the teacher in an elementary school i