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PSY341 Lecture 1.doc

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Hywel Morgan

PSY341 Lecture 1 Mental retardation – it is a controversial stigma causing term observable in children *ICD10 – International Classification of Diseases, used by the rest of the world instead of DSM which is used in North America A.History of Child Psych • Childhood pathology / psychology is relatively new field – around 50/60 years or so • Father of Psychology  FREUD - but he didn’t identify himself as psychologist  but as psychiatrist o Also not much interested in children  was interested in how childhood shaped adult behaviours  1900s – it was about experience of childhood and not behaviour • Profession of psychology emerged during 1940  people started to study brain & behaviour  psychiatrist & Philosopher • 1930s- 1940 - WAR  needed to study brain & behaviour to find suitable position for people in war effort o Psychology then started w/ testing  it evolved from testing people for occupation al position in war to testing in children for IQ to now − Early 1940s: explosion of need for psychologists during and aftermath of WWII – used psychologists to assess what people could do, useful for recruitment (psychological and behavioural abilities) o The 60s brought about relatively recent development of child psych • The further back in history, the lower the child care  children were not regard as completely separate from adult - this concept was novelized by famous author , Charles Dickenson – he tells about the plight of children in England ( Labour, prison etc.) • Up until 1700 - slavery, infathicide, beatings (abuse) are commonplace- wasn’t seen as immoral up until 18 century, not so much seen as repugnant • Pre-18 century, children are seen as little adults after brief period of nursing and weaned: mortality rate was pretty high  so this created aloofness because they saw no point of nurturing and getting attached to them • Can see this in paintings of children  they look alike miniature adults w/ adult clothes and poses • Medieval World – children considered as adults once they no longer need constant adult care  so they marry around 12 year old, go to job around 6 or 7 year old • Then came the Enlightenment/ Renaissance Period  see the th development of games specific to children during 16-17 century; attitudes towards children starteing to change  idea to give an innocent environment to raising children • Plague occurred  “ring around Rosie” • 2 institutions were interested in bringing up children so they would be useful o Church - good Christians o Military (the state) – need soldiers for war • Idea for children education were guided by philosophers  Children were seen as blank slates to be moulded to whatever church or state needed  ideas of tabula rasa by John Locke • Only in last century ( 20 ) has child law have enforced child right  rights as children • In early 1900s ( can called it Dickinsonian Time)  see creation of institutes to care and nurture and protection for children o called orphanages – but they were hard and punitive documented by Dickens  1912 – USA establishment of children’s bureau by congress to investigate and report matters pertaining to child welfare  1948 – courts in Canada decided rights for adults should be applied to children (have since been amended, not all rights apply now)  1960s - enable laws to protect disabled and retarded children ( by both congress and parliament)  1979 – Important Year  the UN declared year of child  where the countries involved in UN passed a resolution for children to have care in facilities and at home, have a family that care for basic needs and have school/institutions close to child’s social setting B. The development of Childhood Psychopathology as A Field7 th • it began around 20 century • abnormal behaviour in children historically been tied to abnormal behaviour in adult  which is not appropriate o children are not typically seen by professionals until their behaviours become someone else problems • DSM (1 ed) only had 2 childhood psychopathologies, now have 10 categories • History: possession by evil spirits was thought to be causing idea of psychopathology rather than organic origin (not necessarily knew the brain back then) th o During Enlightenment Period  18 century  Hippocrates ideas (from Ancient Greeks) gained interest again  where illness/disorders were explained using organic explanations  source of pathology not spiritual rather its physiological • Kraepelin *German scientist* - precursor of DSM: he
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