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PSY341 Lecture 1st week after reading week.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

PSY341 Lecture 1 week after reading week -talked about the midterm -will keep putting things on blackboard Autism -watched a movie after the exam, Lovas movie -IQ is not written in stone, some had changes in IQ over 2 std dev. -read the paper that he discussed right now. -early 1940s, kanner & aspergers characterised condition -loss of contact w/ reality, but not schizo -impaired social relations -ab lang -restricted & repetitive behaviours -kanner – preservation of sameness -Bettleheim 1967 -withdrawal form rejecting parents, treated mothers -refutes in 1980s -Rimland -neuro impairment *schizo is rarer than autism -Pervasive Development Disorder PDD -incls asperger, rett disorder, -3 broad areas where -impairment/qualitative impairments with social interaction, communication, restricted amt of behaviours and action -delays or ab function in social interaction, social lang or symbolic or imaginative play onset prior to 3yrs -prevalence -pre1980, 4or5/10,000 -more recently upped to 7-13 -findings variable, Swedish = 72.6/tenthous -autism spectrum disorder 60/10 000 1 in 165 Less mental retardation, more ASD -inc caused by environment? enahnced, more accurate diagnostics increased awareness -etiology -genetic -3% freq in sibs -PDD concordance for Mztwins = 36-91% -broader phenol- fam aggration of social and cog -15-25% sibs of autistic probands -12% sibs show dec in social interaction, vs 0 with downs -fragile X found in 8% of kids w/ autism -regions on chromo 2,7,17, chromo 11 -neurexin 1 gene, glutamate, early brain development  chromo 11 -pre & peri natal complications -proof equivocal, related to mental retardation -parental age -offspring of men >40 , 5.75% more likely to have ASD than men<30 -no increased risk w/ advanced maternal age Mental Retardation (MR) -there is a 2group theory -organic etiologies -fetal alcohol syndrome -down’s -fragile X -rett syndrome -williams syndrome -non-syndromal mental retardation -familial/idiopathic MR -led to eugenics, blamed for many social ills -jurisprudence allowed eugenic sterilization to occur -viewed as public menaces -Defn: MR refers ti sig. subavg general intellectual functioningm IQ < 70m existing concurrently w. deficits in adaptive behaviour + manifesting during the developmental period -general intellectual functioning assessed with WISC-4 or any standardized intelligence tests Vineland adaptive behaviour scales 2 -semi-structured interview for caregivers -4 forms, 3 parent, interview of rating, 1 teacher -domains + adaptive behaviour composite, x = 100, sd = 15 -4 or 5 domains each w/ 2-3 subdomains communication daily living Socialization Motor skills Maladaptive behaviour -prevalence -stas based on normal distribution, about 2.5 -epidmiological studies: 0.8-1.2% -M:F = 1.6:1.0 Desig IQ level Prevalence Mild 50-70 3-6/1000 Moderate 35-50 2/1000 Severe 20-35 1.3/1000 Profound <20 .4/1000 Edu class -educable MR – EMT >50 -these labels and 2 group theory -45-62% = unknown -75% = prenatal, severe MR -organic and cultural/familial AAMR categories that go with the level of MR -intermittent = as needed basis, for eg crisis -limited = more consistent, eg employment training -extensive = daily involvement in at least some enironemt -pervasice = constant, high intensity, several settings Diagnostic issues -validty of IQ scores -stability of IQ scores -liberalization of IQ criteria – American Associ. Of MR (AAMR) -stress ind. Function and support needs -Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) -prevalence, 1/1000 live births (US) -6% of kids to alcoholic moms -fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = most severe form -etiology = alcohol ingestion during pregnancy -leading preventable causes of MR -FAS is 2x as common as Downs, and 6x as common as Spina bifida -esp a problem in Nunavut, huge social problems and access limits Type Phenotype characteristics Neurological Cognitive phenotype phenotype Fetal -growth retardation, -EtOH disrupts cell -MR Alcohol -malformations in brain, face, adhesion mediated Learning disavily Syndrome heart by L1 cell adhesion -attn disorders -behavioural disorders molecule -behavioural disorders -FAS brain lesions similar to children w/ mutations in gene L1 -L1 influences neuronal migration + organization and long-term synaptic changesm learning and memory Downs -Microcephaly, upward slanting -brain avgs 76% of -quite variable eyes, short stature normal size -MR, majority in mild- -hearing and visual impairment -reduced frontal moderate range (60-80%) lobes, reduced -deceleration of cognitive -precocious aging, inc-ed risk for volume in growth alzheimers hippocampus, -impaired expressive lang, cerebellum and deficits in verbal short term brainstem memory -preserve
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