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PSY343 TEXTBOOK notes.docx

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Neil Rector

TEXTBOOK NOTES 9: Behavior Therapies SKETCH Learning theory  abnormal behavior – mostly acq. & maintained w/ same principles as normal behavior  assessment – continuous, focuses on CURRENT determinants of behavior  people = what they think, feel & do in specific situations  treatment – derived from theory & experimental findings of scientific psychology o methods: precisely specified, replicable, RIGOROUSLY TESTED. o individually tailored to different problems & different people. o Goals & methods: mutually contracted w/ client  Research – evaluates effects of specific techniques on specific problems  Outcome – initial induction of behavior change, its generalization to real-life settings, & its maintenance over time. Radical: symptom = problem Behaviorists disagree w/ one another: are self-reports of subjective units of distress acceptable? Small-n rigorous or large group w/ placebo & no-treatment? 3 C’s of behavior therapy: counterconditioning, contingency mgmt, c-b modification. * Most therapists work with techniques from all 3 viewpoints. COUNTERCONDITIONING “Reciprocal Inhibition” – systematic desensitization: Based on Respondent Conditioning: JOSEPH WOLPE Wrote Psychotherapy By Reciprocal Inhibition (1958) Conditioned fear of buzzer (paired w/ shock)– wouldn’t eat w. buzzer on. Thought maybe he could use eating to inhibit anxiety – fed cats in cages increasingly similar to the cage where the shocks originally happened  extinguished anxiety. Use of deep relaxation or sexual arousal to inhibit anxiety, assertive responses to inhibit social anxiety. Reported >90% success w/ his counterconditioning method THEORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Anxiety causes most behavior disorders (pattern of responses from sympathetic nervous system. - phys changes: blood pressure & rate increase, decreased circulation to stomach & genitals, more to voluntary muscles, pupil dilation, dry mouth. - can be learned: a response evoked in temporal contiguity w/ a given stimulus & subsequently the stimulus can evoke the response (but couldn’t before.) classical respondent conditioning: Pavlovian generalization: stimuli physically similar to original conditioned stimulus evoke same response.  generalization gradient / anxiety hierarchy. What about generalized / free-floating anxiety? – Conditioned to fear omnipresent stimuli, like your body Anxiety can lead to secondary symptoms like disturbed sleep, impaired memory, tremors, gastrointestinal stuff And then THESE can ELICIT anxiety as well!  vicious cycle Also often  AVOIDANCE. So cuzza these stuffs “Anxiety” is often not the primary complaint. Also you can have more than 1 anxiety, so fixing your elevator phobia might not cure your insomnia Symptom substitution: myth of ppl who see all behavior as interconnected by 1 underlying dynamic conflict. Successful elimination of a specific anxiety & specific secondary sx will NOT  new sxs THERAPEUTIC PROCESSES Systematic Desensitization In vivo desensitization Assertiveness Training Graduated homework assignments Sexual Arousal Sensate focusing Behavior Activation Stimulus Control CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT – “Behavior Modification” - Behavior Analysis Based on Operant conditioning THEORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Reinforcements & Punishments Prompt THERAPEUTIC PROCESSES 1. Operationalize Target Behavior 2. Identify Behavioral Objectives 3. Measures (behavioral, baseline) 4. Naturalistic Observation 5. Monitor Results Categories of Contingency Management Procedures:  institutional control  self-control  mutual control / contracting  therapist control  aversive control COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION THEORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY THERAPEUTIC PROCE
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