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october STUDY GUIDE.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
John Vervaeke

INTRODUCTION 2 CENTRAL METAPHORS OF THINKING & REASONING ACTION- choice PERCEPTION- automatic, follows predictable patterns Where is thinking? Where does your cognition end & a cultural tool begin? Ex: writing notes We are learning A-RATIONAL stuff….???? GESTALT vs. SEARCH-INFERENCE FRAMEWORK GESTALTISTS: PERCEPTION metaphor SEARCH-INFERENCE FRAMEWORK: ACTION metaphor (from computational tradition) HOBBES: “by ratiocination I mean computation”…Turing NEWELL & SIMON 1957-72 GPS = fundamental framework for AI & thinking. Success: formalized a technical explanation for problem solving which led to further discoveries. P.S. FRAMEWORK - space, initial & goal states, operators, path constraints, solution Solution: sequence of operations that can transform the initial state  goal state while obeying path constraints Method: realized search space is combsplosionally vast.  heuristic  means-ends analysis? Flawed Assumptions:  featural, categorical view of probsolv o transfer-specificity, domain-specificity  framing & formulation is a minor problem o well vs. ill-defined problems GESTALTIST HISTORY THORNDIKE cats in problem boxes. At no point do they really “get it” Associationism: idea that simple learning mechanism (Law of Effect) splains intelligence. SO greater intelligence = better functioning of law of effect? KOHLER challenged this. Worked w/ Sultan. Said sultan & cat were doing very different things. Gestaltist.  said Sultan was performing a massive restructuring of salient features – an ASPECT SHIFT. This phenomenon was labeled, but not explained. INSIGHT: THEORIES & DEBATES THEORETICAL DEBATES Insight: a) a perception metaphor for problem formulation b) ability to RESTRUCTURE ill-defined formulations c) a qualitative change in learning HEURISTICS: hill-climbing, trial & error, means-ends analysis IS PROBFORM ANOTHER TYPE OF HEURISTIC? Depends on which metaphor you use (WHY???) IS PROBFORM PROCESS SAME AS PROBSOLV PROCESS? **** Gestaltists – NO: formulation is like perception, solving is like action POLYA: coined term “heuristics”  “provocative heuristics”: “tickle the memory” Newell used these to MAKE the GPS, but did not make the GPS use these heuristics. HOLYOAK KAPLAN & SIMON? DUNCKER WERTHEIMER MAYER WEISBERG & ALBA say insight is fake  gave 9-dot problem w/ VERBAL HINT – “go outside the box”  didn’t help to solve problems  concluded insight was fake. Forgot to take into account propositional/procedural distinction & transfer-appropriate processing  said fixation didn’t exist  compartmentalization of memory/search space into exhaustive domains …??? You switch from one to another???  Memory Organization Thesis o important idea, memory organization IS crucial, but mechanisms aren’t well- founded. CRITICISMS:  ELLEN Criticisms of compartmentalization: o combinatorially explosive # of domains o how to cross-reference between domains? o How to label compartments o Notion of what a domain/compartment is is vague o how do you know when you’ve exhausted a domain o How/when do you decide to switch domains BEFORE one’s exhausted? Memory organization thesis: organized to help you solve problem Magical memory thesis: ?  DOMINOWSKI – sufficiency vs necessity of breaking fixation Breaking one’s fixation may be sufficient but unnecessary to “insight” probsolv. This may be why Weisberg & Alba got these results. Insight isn’t algorighmic. points to CASSELMAN & MAIER’S 9-dot-problem hints.  our procedural knowledge mechanisms are probs v. diff from propositional knowledge. (dual processing model of cognition) MAYBE WEISBERG & ALBA’S HINT HINDERED SOLUTION.  Assume a single solitary constraint to solving the problem. In actuality, there are many mutually reinforcing ones … multiple simultaneous constraints. Ex of perceived constraints: no crossing lines, staying within dots, making a non-dot turn, having to make a closed figure… Distinct from inference: a sequential process involving premises. This is generally more propositional, & is applied to well-defined problems. Maybe insight is so procedural cause it deals with MSCs, which require a different kinda mechanism than the sequential inferential p
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