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Lecture 9

LEC9 – Pragmatic Reasoning Schema and Cheater Detection Nov 5 2009?

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University of Toronto St. George
John Vervaeke

PSY370: Thinking and Reasoning LEC9 Pragmatic Reasoning Schema and Cheater Detection Nov, 5th, 2009 Review: Dual Processing Level propositional sequential computational pattern based procedural parallel processing Kershaw & Ohlssan 2004 challenge implicit assumption in W&A: there is a single difficulty that once overcome will lead to insight problem solving alternative: multiple reinforcing constraints if this is the case you need to have pattern based PDP attacking a problem that is mutually reinforcing sequentially, will lead to the system reconstructing itself and resisting. Hence we need to use PDP, and use pattern recognition abilities more. Insight may be procedural in nature because they are multiple reinforcing constraints in them, similar to how we need to solve a procedural problem complex skills are what we need when we have insight problems -> procedural in nature single difficulty stems from theoretical confusion there is often a single key action to solve the insight problem key: salient and necessary to solving the problem ie. 9 box: key = go outside the box the fact that there is a single key action to solve the insight problem does not mean there is a single difficulty there may be multiple mutual difficulty similar to confusion of necessity and sufficiency 3 kinds of factors 1. perceptual factors (pattern factors) figural integrity Gestalt laws relevant and salience patterns cognition and perception is oriented to patterning information Processing Factors (formulation factors) Search space factors mental look ahead Knowledge factors (Transfer factors) poor or inappropriate transferring all 3 factors are all mutually reinforcing ex. 9 dot problem have to pattern the figure (break the figure of the square, alter background and foreground relationship) have to formulate what to do outside the 9 dots, search space is very large in the going outside the 9 dots hint transfer issues -> break with past experiences where connecting dots leads closed figure key is to attack all 3 factors together in a coordinated manner, the harder problems are the problems in which more constraints are imposed mutually from the 3 factors K&O ran experiment involved in procedurally training difficulty on all 3 factors
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