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L9 Memory Failures.docx

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Kristie Dukewich

18/11/2013 L9 Memory Failures Source Monitoring Error  Romney has the source of information being external to himself, he kept hearing this event from others so he thinks he ‘experienced’ this event, but he was born 4 years after the event  Source monitoring = ability to keep track of where memories come from o Not necessarily explicit: implicitly hearing sth from someone, some kind of heuristics of how to act o Internal SM = distinguishing between what the person thinks about it & the person actually did it; o External SM = distinguishing between 2 external sources; info generated externally from others o Reality SM = distinguishing between things actually happen & things are only imagined o Internal SM based on an action, reality SM based on an event instead of actions;  Type of source information o Perceptual details are encoded into the memory, including what a person was looking at or hearing when the memory was created; o Contextual information refers to the context in which the memory was acquired; o The amount of semantic detail and/or affective information refers to how much a person was mentally or emotionally involved in the events. You can have thoughts that are semantically related. o Cognitive operations = mental processes that are associated with a memory, eg deliberation  Source monitoring vs source info o Internal SM doesn’t have mental involvement o External SM: cognitive processes don’t apply o Reality SM: imagined events involve more mental operations  False fame effect o Artists you really like are much more famous than they really are o Acquisition phase: read non-famous names; immediate test: which are famous? Read old & new non-famous & famous names, then test after 24 hours o Reading non-famous names increases familiarity: famous names 60% chance of identifying as famous, non-famous names 10%, non-famous names familiar 20%;  People are judged as famous because their names are familiar  Sleeper effects o DV = opinion change, rating people give about the credibility of the source 1 18/11/2013 L9 Memory Failures o Immediate: people can remember source in their memory; after 4 weeks: presenting with the same content without showing source, previously low credibility source has been disengaged from the content, people agree more with the information o Sleeper effect = People are willing to accept previously rejected opinions over time, because low credibility source is lost  Pratkanis, Greenwald, Leippe, Baumgardner (1988): each long policy message was presented in a 3 (source credibility: low, undescribed, or high). Subjects viewed a long policy message → wrote the argument they considered best → they reveal the source → rated the trustworthiness of the source → being asked for their opinion on the message topic.  Immediately after presenting the message, people agree with the message very much (GREEN = message effect), decay is very slow; discounting cue (source) comes after the message (RED = cue effect); then evaluate the credibility of the source; information originally regarded as low credibility; sleeper effect based on combined impact of message and cue (BLACK = sleeper effect)  A sleeper effect results when message and cue have near equal initial impact, but the impact of the cue decays more rapidly and independently than that of the message. Thus, the resultant yields an observable sleeper effect  this opinion post-test is important for the sleeper effect because these judgements draw their attention away from the message & ask them to engage in item-specific processing for the source; this decreases the level of integration of message & source; engaging in relational processing decreases the sleeper effect  Verbal overshadowing: o 1 group of SS were given 5 min to describe the face of bank robbers and the other group didn’t; all subjects then shown 9 photos of verbaly similar faces; percent of correct identification: not described > described; verbal information acts as memory representation, so memory is distorted o verbally describing a face between presentation and test can impair identification of the face  Activity o Reality SM: my voice reading vs thinking of my voice o Internal SM: reading aloud the words vs silently reading  False memory o Feels like a memory o Re
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