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PSY372 L7 Implicit memory.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

PSY372 L7 28/10/2013 Skill memory  Skill acquisition o Difficult to describe it in words (X convey) o Acquired without awareness o Requires several repetitions Memory for facts & events Communicated easily Has content that’s consciously accessible o Broadly speaking, skills can be categorized as ‘open’ or ‘closed’ o Closed skills are highly choreographed or sequential; there’s little wiggle room for performance  Eg. Skater performing triple axel  Taking a shot is an open skill since he can do different actions   Fitts’ stages of skill acquisition o Cognitive stage: learning a skill bases on verbalized rules; eg. Using written instructions to set up a tent o Associative stage: actions become stereotyped; scripted; eg. Setting up a tent in a fixed sequence, without instructions o Autonomous stage: actions become automatic; eg. Setting up a tent while mentally planning dinner  Evidence for discrete stages for acquisition o Beilock & Carr (2001): it Fitts’ stages are accurate, then there should be predictable differences between the ways novices & experts remember & perform actions o Novices should have a simple description of how to putt o In contrast, experts should have a long description of how a putt, but a simple description of a particular putt o Describe a generic putt + the last putt in detail o Result: professional golfers have shortest distance from the target than undergrad/athlete; experts have fewer steps for a putt in episodic memory since they are in the autonomous stage & they didn’t encode all the details during a specific putt; undergrad/athlete mentioned more steps since they’re in cognitive stage; 1 PSY372 L7 28/10/2013 o Instructions to focus on every step in a procedural skill should help novices, but hurt experts’ performance o Novices require declarative memory of each step o Skill-focused condition: monitor their swing 7 keep the putter head position as straight as possible; say straight o Dual-task condition: listen to a series of tones while putting; 1 freq = target  Disrupt cognitive rehearsal so experts did better in dual task than novices; o Beilock et al (2004):  accuracy instructions – deliberate processes; novices focus on verbalized instructions in cognitive stage so they did better than experts  Speed instructions – focus on speed; novices aren’t in their auto stage so their mean distance is longer, did worse than experts; o Experts succumb to failure when they think hard on instructions, they hurt the performance since this act is resource-consuming; o Expertise-induced amnesia = a skill is so automatized that becomes procedural, you can no longer pay attention to that; episodic memory for the event should be hard  Experts remember better in chess arrangements than novices; but they remember fewer alternatives to the one they ultimately chose compared with novices  Genetic contribution to skill acquisition o Fox et al (1996): Monozygotic & dizygotic twins practice a rotary pursuit task; task = keep stylus entrained to the position of a target rotating at different speeds; perceptual-motor task o Result: performance improved with practice with the same rate for both types of twins. However, identical twins performed much more similarly than fraternal twins.  Rate of skill acquisition o Power law of learning: Performance improves rapidly at first, at slowly diminishing returns o Well-known skills exhibit the power law when feedback is given Implicit memory  Mere exposure effect: prefer things that appear frequently as good o Rajecki (1974): chicken eggs were exposed to intermittent tones or light during incubation; o Result: after birth, chicks made fewer distress calls in the presence of the prenatally familiar stimulus; 2 PSY372 L7 28/10/2013  Mere exposure o Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc: view 10 diff octagons 5 times each; then view items from prev set paired with 10 new octagons & decide which is new & which they like better  Result: Don’t differentiate between octagons but they showed preference for ones presented before o Zajonc: Absence of aversive events as in unconditioned stimulus o When sth is paired frequently with sth non-aversive, it’ll eventually become conditioned o Doesn’t require that +/-ve outcomes follow exposure o Only no negative affects help, it doesn’t need to have +ve affects o Fang et al (2007): this kind of implicit memory can be capitalized upon by advertisers  repeated presentation of online banner ads leads to enhanced +ve evaluations of the brand, but not better recall, which explains the power of branding;  embodied implicit preference o embodied cognitions = cognitions is spread through entire body o Beilock & Holt (2007): ask novices & typists to make judgements on letter dyads  Make preferences in 2 conditions: dual-task  Dual-task interfere motor systems for finger actions, won’t be able to simulate typing actions  Novices have no preference in single task; 2-letter dyad is easier to perform, better feeling because they have better motor fluency; in dual-task, experts’ motor systems are occupied since they’re asked to monitor their motor sequence;  Skilled typists preferred different-finger dyads compared with same-finger dyads, but only when their motor systems were available  The experts couldn’t explain why they preferred certain dyads 3 PSY372 L7 28/10/2013 Midterm answers Incidental learning = rate the pleasantness + surprise recall task Processing view agrees with incidental learning because researchers can control SS’s encoding processes Restriction of diet is difficult, due to the irony of thought suppression MRI can show the structure of the brain; basal ganglia specialize for stimulus-response reactions & internally guided actions. Implicit recall of episodic memory: implicit recall = unconscious access of memory; episodic memory = memory for a particular event; we go to a water-park → we may have a better memory for water-related words Self-order task tests for central executive’s controlled updating of info; Wisconsin card sorting task tests for task-switching by central executive System view: whether memory phenomenon is intact in the STM or LTM Process view: What the factors affect encoding processes OR retrieval processes (eg. Context) Poor discrimination of new/old items → more overlapping Conservative response bias  more likely to recall new items/less likely to recall old items  high response criteria  more likely to have misses and correct rejections 4 PSY372 L7 28/10/2013 L8 Metamemory & Prospective Memory Who wants to be a millionaire = knowing what you know Metacognition  Sophisticated judgments based on our metacognition  Awareness of how our memory works o Monitoring o Controlling behavior – o Metamemory isn’t that good actually, doesn’t correlate to actual memory o Primates have their own awareness of memory, animals also have this ability  Accuracy of Metamemory o Accurate = You don’t know sth you don’t know/you know sth you know o Failure = you know sth you don’t know/  Metamemory judgements (2 major theories) o Accessibility hypothesis (indirect access to memory, since you’re cues to retrieve) – base on info at hand, including partial retrieval, evaluate the strength of that info without actually retrieving it;  depends on how many info comes up; more info coming up, more likely you have that info in memory; stronger the retrieved info, more likely it is in memory o cue-familiarity hypothesis (indirect) – judgements are inferred based on familiarity of the cue/domain of the question  greater familiarity, higher likelihood; direct access is so inaccurate & often people use heuristics  Judgements of learning (JOLs) o JOLs are estimates people make for how well they’ve learned sth o Typically terrible at the time of study; o Inability hypothesis: don’t’ have direct conscious access to our mental processes; we have poor metacognitions o Monitoring retrieval hypothesis – people are assessing whether they can retrieve info NOW; info is still in working memory; o Cue-only judgements o Dunlosky & Nelson (94): learn pairs of words, 1 word as the cue, & SS said the target;  2 c
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