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PSY372 L10 Amnesia

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Kristie Dukewich

PSY372 L10 25/11/2013 Hypnosis  An altered state of consciousness in which a person is more willing to accept & follow suggestions of the hypnotist o Not just an elaborative placebo effect, it can happen with your awareness; o You can’t do anything under hypnosis you can’t already do when you’re not hypnotized  Changes in perception suggested under hypnosis are really just changes in verbal report of perceptions  Ponzo illusion: even 2 lines are of the same length, a farther object would have to be longer than a nearer one for both to produce retinal images of the same size.  Some people are more suggestible than others - Sway test: standing upright vs sway; people sway are more suggestible and more likely to be hypnotized; 20% of population are suggestible  You can’t make people do things against their will during hypnosis – people who are hypnotized give explanations about their behavior  Hypnosis can be therapeutic – anxiety/asthma; mainly due to placebo effect, it works when people believe it’ll work  Hypnosis can’t induce age-regression or can help ‘refreshed memories’ o Navigate vocab of 9yo & vocab of an adult; results are not consistent  A lot of people out there think hypnosis can facilitate recall; o Cognitive research: SS memorize 40 line drawings, ask repetitively about the 40 drawings; one group is hypnotized & another group isn’t; accuracy = 30% for both groups, they may recall more info but it may not be accurate  People don’t have better recall under hypnosis o Forensic research: witness who has been hypnotized isn’t allowed give testimony  People recall additional information under hypnosis o Sheehan & Tilden (1983): Ss with high and low suggestibility were presented with misleading or neutral information about a wallet-snatching incident and tested for memory under either waking or hypnotic instruction. o High suggestibility group produces more or less the same accuracy as low suggestibility group does; hypnotized group gave less accurate information than control group, though the result isn’t sig o Confidence: # of details that SS endorse has the highest level of confidence; hypnotized group gave higher confidence ratings than the control group; suggestibility doesn’t matter o Hypnotic suggestibility was not associated with the (memory/info) distortion effect. Despite the fact that hypnosis did not enhance recall, Ss were frequently confident that distorted 1 PSY372 L10 25/11/2013 memories recovered under hypnosis were accurate. Large risk that reported memories are inaccurate; hypnosis adds little to the ability to remember Organic amnesia  Amnesia = catastrophic loss of memories or memory abilities beyond the normal forgetting  Patients still have normal intelligence & memory span  Organic amnesia tends to involve medial temporal lobes: hippocampus, amygdala, nearly cortex o Recollective experience vs familiarity: hippocampus → I ‘remember’ responses; amygdala → I ‘know’ responses (last week)  (BOOK)HM: had brain surgery to relieve his epilepsy. The surgeons removed much of his hippocampus & adjoining cortex. Brain damage included portions of amygdala & temporal cortex. Although the rate & severity of epilepsy ↓↓, he suffered from dense anterograde amnesia. He wasn’t able to learn new things. He had a good STM, and his language skills were intact. He can acquire new declarative memory upon repetitive salient presentation for a long time. He also showed some evidence of implicit memory, such as perceptual identification & procedural memory tasks.  Damage to diencephalon may also produce (anterograde) amnesia: Hypothalamus, Thalamus, Mamillary bodies → decline in the ability to coordinate info in memory & recover memories effectively; more extensive retrograde amnesia than those with medial temporal lobe damage; difficult to retrieve old memories & new memories  Definitions of anterograde & retrograde depend on the time of trauma: retrograde amnesia = loss of memories prior to the event Retrograde amnesia = loss in the ability to access LTM that were previously available  People don’t tend to forget who they are; they may lose both episodic & semantic autobiographical memory;  Factual knowledge about the world is ok  Retrograde memory loss = result of disrupting consolidation of LTM: it’s about the software, not the hardware – brain structure isn’t damaged but memory processing is interfered;  Memory loss may not be immediate, patients lose memory about the trauma hours after a head injury; the reason remains a mystery; they may get some of the memories back with permanent brain damage  Causes of retrograde amnesia: serious head injury, cardiovascular incident (stroke → disrupt oxygen & nutrients from going to the brain)  Characteristics of Retrograde amnesia o Ribot’s law = there’s a time gradient to that memory loss so that recent memories are more likely to be disrupted compared to remote memories 2 PSY372 L10 25/11/2013 o Mainly autobiographical memory is lost; a delay between trauma & onset of amnesia; older memories first to recover  Disrupting consolidation: electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) tends to produce retrograde amnesia o Radical therapy for severe depression, no longer involuntary nowadays; loss in personal autobiographical memory & semantic memory; implicit memory preserved o Squire & Cohen’s TV show test: TV programs that lasted for 1 season or less; test people undergo ECT & see if they recognize the names of TV shows that aired for a few weeks o Most recent programs show the highest percent of recognition before ECT; but after ECT, patients were unable to recognize titles of programs aired 1-3 years prior to the ECT  Case study: P.S. has very dense form of retrograde amnesia following a stroke that affected his thalamus. He doesn’t any memories other than fighting in war for British navy in WWII; he can only remember what happened in his home town before WWII but semantic memories generally preserved; he can identity people who became famous in the era & put them in correct order; he can’t identity exactly when these people became famous; Since he couldn’t form new memories, he actually thought he was still in the navy & he’s in his twenties. o Thalamus = connection between diff sources of info that would place memories in time & in PS’ life  PS has more problems in retrograde than anterograde amnesia; HM has more problems in anterograde amnesia than retrograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia = inability to store new declarative memories  Time interval / how long a person can maintain awareness is a variable, depending on whether the patient exp interference  Standard consolidation theory: Encoding & retrieval are highly reliant on the medial temporal lobe structures, but the cortex eventually takes over representations & retrieval o Neural connections initially are made by hippocampus but over time those connections bind together, independent of hippocampus  Multiple trace theory: hippocampus is always necessary for the retrieval for the autobiographical exp; o with every retrieval of that info, a new trace is produced, same or similar to the original trace, subsequent traces are separate; multiple reactivation of these bind-together components, makes a network of connections that is semantic in nature, not episodic 3 PSY372 L10 25/11/2013  People were asked to report info in diff periods of time; people with anterograde amnesia due to hippocampal damage recall fewer autobiographical episodic details (internal) than autobiographical semantic details (external)  Due to deficits in LTM encoding, patients don’t have the pool of memories to keep track of context; since distinctiveness is d
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