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PSY396 MAY 29.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

PSY396 MAY 29, 2013 10 MC 10 POINTS 5 MC WITH TRUE FALSE 10 POINTS 6 OUT OF 7 SHORT ANSWER 30 POINTS 3 OUT OF 4 LONG ANSWER 30 POINTS OFFICE HOUR 2 - Small scale indi - Then larger scale processes synaptic transmission and psps - How small fit into larger BRAIN - Trend in field to look beyond small scale process not tell us about behvabour - Estrablish principal but need to look beyond simple cell to understand complex behavior - Circuits large group of neurons acting in coordinated matter - Now official initiative that deal with in neurons influence circuits and then behavior - Conenctome – map all white matter tracts in the brain – long lengths of axons - Look at all ind bundle of fibers that connect different neurons in the brin - Strand releate to bundle of axons from one brain area to another - Blue fan from dorsal neocortex to subcortical strcuutrues Next - Fine strands fibers – white matter tracts - Technique – dti - Mri technique variation – opposed look gross structures - Tract water molecules infuse through – shape of axons to find differences water molecule – water molecule can move in all direction equalproabilty bc the cell body is circular - In axon bc of shape – h20 tendecny to move In partcilur direction to diffuse left and right but mostly along the axon - Not answer the fuction – structural not function - Brain intiative – map individual cell and explain function – cells to other cells and to other function - 100 billion cell so ambitious - Dna one static structure just time decode ind pieces of dna - Side view – short distance one – the c shape In back Neural circuits - Video to describe to couple years of work Next - Groups of neurons interconnected and serve in some way some important function - Most circ are large numerb of neurons 100 1000 10000 with that complxitty view circuits aren’t map so far - May know parts in brain that contribute but no full pic - Some are decoded – mediate reflexes 3 or 4 in spinal cord and neurons from spine to muscles and mediate some reflexes - Brain to muscles – slightly simpler loops - Motor loops part of circuity involved in motor control - To move muscle is simple – while brain making up mind is a lot more - Striatum – motor control - Prim motor area originiates but in addition supplementary motor areas infront of primary that preprogram movements - Complexity in enormous - Few examples - Selective attention - Emotion - Impulsive behavior Selective attention - Partial - Inner gray is brain stem - Medulla pons and midbrain - And globular dtrcutures left right - C shape blue is sriatal of globus pallid and putname - Pink is amygdale - Orange is hippo - Corpus colusm – thick bundle of finers connect both hemipshres - Fans out as fiber reach target - Above corpus is cingulated cortex - Lies inner side of brain - The green prefrontal cortex - One div is green – dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex to the side and up - Medial prefrontal cortex – from cing cortex further anterior - Orbitofrontal cortex tip and underneath brain - Originates in cingualte cortex to striatem to thalamus and feeds back to cingualr cortex – three neuron - Contribute to selective attention – part of loop to where to locate attention - Oterh mechanism that executy and make it happen Emotion - Starts pyramidal neurons of ventral of ac to subcortical areas then to green dot the nucleus acumbens - Nuc acumbens control of emotion – less in psychosis and high in reward - Drugs of reward we find exert influences in nuclear acum - From acumbens to thalamus and feeds back to interior cingualte - Loop in control of emotion - Not control all emotion – emotional process is widely distributed loop is one loop - Another is amygdala - Experience or control emotion Impulsivity - Originates in front – nehind eyes - To striatim to thalamus and back to cortex in feedback loop - Allows ofc to figure out what happened to oringal message sent Neural circuits - Main driver of these loops and originate pyramidal cells – long axon as in ofc in previous loop - In addition - Interneuron – intergrated Pyrmadial - Important building blocks of neural circuits - Main function to send messages over long distances - Allows one area to talk to another or cortical area to talk more cortical areas - Serve function bec unique strcutre - Feature - Long axon - Other features as well Next - Intrgrate information and send it onward - Unique is structure of dendrtic trees - Soma looks like pyramind – base some dendrtic branch – basal dendrites - Apex – another large branch apical dendrite - These brances of dedritic trees are sent away from pyrimadial cell and allows it to collect info from wide sources - To soma and whether send message durther - Mediate long distance comm in brain Next - Many outputs - Mostly ex glut - Receive – different ex along one main apical - Basal dendrites receive neuromdulatary inputs - All are trends - Most common apical and dendritic - Contrast - Interneurons to mediate short distance signaling - And not cordiante two brain areas – but cordiante activity activity of few neurons in same pop same brain area - Internruron – gaba output - Primary function coridnate - Few types of interneuron - Based on strcuuture Basket - Main feture to their function - Built to revieve and send many
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