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PSY396 June 12.docx

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PSY396 June 12, 2013 Mood disorders - Promimnent is major depressive disorder or commonly known as depression Are not - Depression seen as - Not full blown disease or legit disorder - And pepel with it seen as weakedn or cry babies or large health coverage - And expected to snap out of it and go away - That attitude came with stigma - Attitidtude has been changing - Change last 10 15 years and seen as legitc disorder and hard to handle and delibnrtatin g Affective - Depression most ocmmn aff disorder - Profound sadness - Deep and more importantly and consistent over long periods of time - Iability to experience pleasure prev pleasurable activities not ring bell same way Bipolar - Not commin as depression and defined by state of mania - Usually involved good mood and lots of energy and dstractable and irraitable - Manic and depressed state - Cycles different stages and mood change swings to extremes - Not as common as depression and not involve brain mech but some simil when comes to neurchemmistry Understainding - Physiological difference s - Mood disorders also correl with genetic factors - Known little that contribute - Family studies strong bio component to these disorders - And psych factors Bio perspective st - Family studies concordance 1 is higher then distant or random people in ppo - Mono 50% - Di less then half 20% - Addition - Adoptioin – higher kids and bio parents then adopted parents - Pointing strong bio component Psy percspective - Some just learned - Unable to react or deal with stressful situations and learn things are hopeless and no efficient way to cope with lifes dramas - Another psych factor - Attribution style – neg atrribtion style increase developing depression - Negative – interpreting something bad as being internal or person fault and stable not change and global negative things reflects overall pattern things going wrong - Positive – negative events are temperal Prev - 50% lifetime risk - Higher in women - Bipolar higher 1.6 overall lifetime - Depression average onset is mid 20s - And disease is not easy to cure possible to treat not cure - 1 episode exhibit 2 and chance of another increases further Continuum - Depression decrease mood or negative mood - Mania elevated and or comb or ele and decreased mood - High mood to low mood extremems not normal and healthy people variations in mood - Vary some baseline or normal level - Depresisona and mania extremes of mood - Hypo mania – beyond nrormal below mania - Dysthimia – decreased or negative mood not extreme as depression but unpleasant Types - Summary of what talked about covering major points Depression - In more detail - Most promienent are emotional low state - Also some cog and somatic symptoms - Problem conc and slow thinking - And reluctance to make desciciions - See fatigue loss of appetite - Whole organism feels depressed Mania - Emotion cog and som symptoms - Most prom is high mood - Carires some neg features - Irritability and impatientce and lead to destructabilty and inflated self esteem and grandiosity and more difficult to function in society - Somatic – energy levels higha - And mind distracted body same way - Bipolar – state of mania and depression Mood changes - Little time in normal mood - Mixed episodes – display some symptoms of both manian and depression Rapid cycling - Bipolar - Goes thorugh mania and depression in quick succession over a year Clinical features - Depression - 6 classes for mood disorder symptoms Mood - Quality of mood and intensity of change - And duration of altered mood - Bodily ffucntions Cog - Problems with attention and memory and low tolerance for frustrating experiences - And impulse control kill themsevels Behavior - Motivation - Change in interest - Phsycial - Somatic effects - Headaches - Changes in energy level Qualify terms - Each change acute or more chronic - Intensity – - And stability change one time episodic or recurrent plagues over long time Depression dsm - Severa symptoms depressed people will develop - Irritable mood and anhedonia most common underlines Mania - Most prom is inflated mood – typ defines manic Effects of anti d - Effects of anti d treatments - Response – some reduction in symptoms following drug - 30 percent not respond to drug at all 50 percent do - Very large depressed not react to depressive - Remission – state of no symptoms - Recovery – prlonged state of remission 6 to 12 months - Relapse – afer starts getting better not fully recovers and exhibiting high levels of depression - Recurrence – after full state of remission Graph - How might look - Depression following som e treatment see some remission to full recovery Neurochem of ab behavior - Certain idea why depression dveleps on phys process to mood disorders - Large proportion with mood disorders don’t respond so doubt current understanding is correct - A lot of what we know is no full expalantion of mechanism or what happens in depressed brian even though research go on for long time - More money spent bc impact on society - Not good animal model of depression some done with rodents and model state of depression - Model of depression in learned helplessness – cyclinder filled with water and good swimmers but not climb out and rat who stops struggling or trying to dig self out is depressed rat sooner give up indication if leanred helplessness and depressed - Some indications particular model may work but some critcs stop swimming just smart and state of zen - Difficult to understand depressioin - Basic idea of depre or mood - Something wrong with neut tran - Synth or nt or related enzumes - Reuptake - Receptors - Affinint y - All factors may contribute Synt - Evidnce mono involved in depress or mood dis in general Sero - Pathway - Dop nor and sero – monoamines - Have been focus of research trying to explain depression - Not know exact mech but are central players in control of mood and state of abnormal mood - Not only players Mao - How degraded inactivated from nt - One is reuptake - Ser and dop and nor different reuptake pumps - And mao which degade - And compt – degrade dop and nor - Not sero Nor - Prom at synapses – understood recpeoros are alpha 1 receptor and acts exc and alpha 2 exists post and pre terminal and particular pre autoreceptor reg release or nore - Nore at auto initiate negative feedback decrease in nore release. Cascade events reduce release or nore - Post syn beta receptors Reg of rate - Few levels reg - One level is level of enzyme production - De or act or enzyme effect conc of nt Next - Another level of nt itself - Deg reuptake and auto Bio basis - Mono – central players in depression Mono - 3 mono - Seems efficiency in nt of ser and nore leads to some symptoms of depression - Particular decrease activity lead to state of decreased mood - And increase levels help depressed patient - Not simple bc bipolar and states of mania elevated mood some dysreg in mono - Low mono and high high mood – wrong
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