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November 5thLecture.docx

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Charles Helwig

November 5 , 2013 Culture and Moral Reasoning - Does not reflect all cultures or most of population - Liberalism as Destiny- only held in Western secular thinking - Other cultures and traditions of thoughts may thought w other - 1)The strong case of cultural bias, 2) the moderate case of cultural base - Strong case o Kohlberg’s theory completely cultural base- Western culture, any attempt to apply theory to another culture would fail o Kohlberg defined each stage as increase of understanding of diff social agents and social institutions o If culture defined morality completely differently o If there are social cognitive cases in perspective taking o Would get a form of stage 1 thinking ( where authority only matters) but you would not get stage progression as Kohlberg describes as increasing perspective taking o Strong cultural bias approach, the theory would not be able to reason the understandings of others in other cultures beyond stage 1 - Moderate case: o We may want to modify to diff cultures (Stage 3 and 5) o Critique based on certain confounds found: used win Western philosophy: Social Contract, universal dignity of individuals- came in to fashion during enlightenment and used to critique existing social culture o Really define highest stages- Shweddre did not separate form and contract, could be influenced by Western philosophies and definitions o Progression along those lines - Cross-cultural studies: o Two villages : Taiwan and Malaysia (Atayal) o Kohlberg found he did have to modify dilemmas but he could keep basic features intact o i.e. Heniz dilemma translated to local cultural context o Findings: ps in these village cultures brought up same issues asAmerican ps when discussing dilemmas, ie. Issue of life, property, laws/ rules/ authority o Reasoning could be organizes into stages o Stage 2 Taiwan: He should steal drug bc if she dies he’ll have to pay for her funeral o Stage 2Atayal: He should steal the drug bc he needs his wife to cook for him o Is there evidence for invariance - 3 graphs: USA, Taiwan, Mexico o Young boys aged 10 – 16 in urban middle class societies o Age 10: stage 1 in each country o By age 13, stage 3 and 4 more dominant in American, by 16, stage 4 and 5 most dominate o Taiwan: stage 3 most dominant at 13 and 16 , stage 2 dropping at stage 2, stage 4 second popular at age 16 o Mexico: Stage 3 and 4 more similarly dominant at age 13, stage 3 dominant and 16 - 2 graphs: two isolated villages in Turkey and Yucatan o Turkey: age 10: stage 1 (high amount).Age 13 and 16, stage 1 dominates o Yucatan: age 10:stage 1 most dominant (similar to Turkey), at age 13 and 16, stage 1 dominant - Kohlberg & Nisan (1987) o Turkey villagers and urban sample (urban vs, rural cultures in Eastern culture) o Only interviewed boys not girls due to cultural reasons o Village ps stabilized at stage 3, while urban ps tended to reach stage 4 o Information collected during 1970’s and 1980’s o Are they consistent w cognitive-developmental theory? o Not necessarily inconsistent w CDT bc/ certain environments stimulate diff type of moral reasoning/ perspective taking o Different environment encourages critical thinking, perspective taking, o All sorts of variable used to disentangle o Reason for Post-conventional reasoning req understanding that conventional reasoning not adequate for answering o Post-conventional reasoning - Stage 5: Pri
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