Class Notes (835,600)
Canada (509,275)
Psychology (3,518)
PSY414H1 (3)


10 Pages
Unlock Document

Charles Helwig

10-01-2013 October-01-13 1:04 PM Lecture 4: Social Learning Theory Midterm • 1 large essay question o More integrative essay o ~40 mins o e.g., Examine in depth a theory and evidence for it; compare and contrast theories • Couple of short answer questions o ~10 mins each o e.g., A particular construct within the theory and give example, or particular piece of evidence • Studying: o Start with lecture notes o Then go back to the readings • See what parts are new Differences with Radical Behaviourism • In SLT, both cognition and affect are considered important o Reject the fundamental grounding assumption of behaviourism that a science of behaviour can only focus on overt responses (Skinner) o Cognitive aspects: o Types of representations of external events that people experience o Information processing o Inferences made from observation o Evaluative judgements of right and wrong • Affect provides evaluative aspect to morality o Real reason why morality asserts influence over their behaviour is because of affective processes o Affect is most important aspect • Emphasizes not just behaviour but also standards, values, and judgments o More like psychoanalytic theory than Skinner's operational theory • Concerned with internalization o Accepted that internalization is a real phenomenon o What's really important about morality is how this internal control of morality works • Affect is conditioned by environment; cognition may also come from the environment and be internalized under the right conditions Differences with Psychoanalytic Theory • Similarity: o Focus on affect (and cognition components) • Rejected a lot of the more complex, abstract internal entities of Freudian theory (Id, Ego, Superego, etc.) o Felt these constructs were too abstract and ambiguously related to observable behaviour in order to verify them scientifically • Favoured experimental approach and scientific rigour of Behaviourism o Valued experimental rigour of Behaviourism • Inferences about internal constructs stay close to data, minimal abstraction from immediately observable behaviour Aronfreed's Theory • Concerned with specifying mechanisms that lead to internalization (of morality) o Key is internalization • Morality is defined as the imposition of social standards • Child is initially uncontrolled and uncontrollable o Important part of moral development is fear of external punishment with an internal mechanism that can control the child's behaviour when there is no fear of direct punishment • Moral development • Believed that both affect and cognition were important components of internalization o Demonstrated this in a series of extensive studies o Forbidden Toy Paradox  Paradigm design to operationalize and test for presence and strength of internalization in a child Forbidden Toy Paradigm • Phase 1: Training Phase o Child presented with two toys, one attractive, one not o Punished for choosing attractive toy • Experimenter would say, "NO!" and deprive the child of candy • Experimenter wouldn't elaborate o Very quickly, children would come to choose the unattractive toys • Learn this very quickly o Basic conditioning experiment • Learn through punishment to show a particular response • Phase 2: Test of Internalization o Child left with toys and ostensibly unobserved o Assess whether child handles the attractive toy • How long it takes them to resist the temptation • Moral responses are strictly defined within the confines of the experiment o Unlikely children have ever experienced this definition of attractive toys as morally wrong o Child wouldn't bring in external contingencies; new moral response • Consistent with definition of morality in this approach Aronfreed's Explanation • Affect controls behaviour of child • Negative affect as a result of punishment procedure associated with act of choosing the attractive toy • Punishment has become internalized in the form of affect o Would then come to control their behaviour • Child experiences negative affect as a result of the punishment; then comes to associate this negative affect with the act of choosing the attractive toy o The magnitude of the negative affect is conditioned to the intentional precursors to the act • i.e., As they're reaching for the toy • Negative affect associated with the motoric act of choosing the toy • When the child begins to perform that act again or to think about performing it, the motoric action that is the same as the affect, inhibits the action • Negative response produced as a result of prior punishment  Inhibits behaviour outside of initial condition  Punishment has become internalized in the form of negative affect (anxiety) • Key finding: o Strength of internalization is directly proportional to the immediacy of punishment o The longer the delay, the more likely children are to play with the forbidden toys • Both groups learned the same response in Phase 1; they learned it equally • But behaviour in Phase 2 is dramatically different o When you introduce delay you break the connection between the affect and the unwanted action • Aronfreed thought you had to go inside the black box to explain the internalization aspect Factors Affecting Internalization • Intensity of punishment (intense, but not too intense) o Intense enough to arouse negative affect o Not extreme punishment (e.g., spanking) because too much anxiety/negative affect could interfere with cognitive processes (i.e., override them) • Consistency of punishment • Agent of socialization (e.g., adult) should be otherwise warm and nurturing o Child would be more likely to follow directions of adults who are more likely to give them approval/positive reinforcements in the future o Affective quality of overall relationship with agents Role of Cognition (Aronfreed) • Rationale ("cognitive structure"). o Pick toy that is "easier to tell about" • Attractive toys are too difficult to tell about • Rather arbitrary but it was a deliberate choice by Aronfreed because he wanted to show the effects of just giving a reason (rather than a good reason) o Verbalized reason why the punishment is taking place • Reason with punishment produces stronger internalization than just punishment at 6 second delay condition • Rationale functions as a mediator of anxiety that can intervene before the child commits a punished act o Can guide the behaviour and prevent the child from beginning an act that will produce anxiety/emotional discomfort o Reason can help to control internalization process outside of external punishment Role of Intentions • Intention to commit a wrong, can itself take on moral action • Child told that it was being punished for wanting to tell about the forbidden toy (not for act of picking up toy) • Intention just as strong as rationale for controlling behaviour/internalization • Intention with delay produced greater internalization than other reasons and equal to punishment without any delay • If bond between reason and punishment is broken (reason no longer temporally connected with punishment), then internalization declines • Rationales that adults provide, give children information as to why an action is wrong and why they should feel shameful if they repeat it o If children experience intention to commit act, they experience the previous anxiety and if a reason is given, they are more likely to link the action to the behaviour o The internalization will then come to control the behaviour o If you break connection between rational and affect/anxiety by introducing a delay, then internalization declines • Why he thought it was the close association between the linking of the rationale and affective component that drove the internalization Self-Attributions • Focuses on internal dispositions of actor o e.g., You're not the kind of person who would hurt someone o Talk about character o Extending from disposition to personality • Argued that if adults focused their reasons on character traits, a child would be more likely to make a self-attribution o Transgressing or thoughts of transgressing would result in negative self-image or guilt • Perry et al. (1980) o One group given "moral self-concept training", other group not • Told they were selected because they were good at following roles and carrying out instructions o Assigned boring task • Sorting cards • Would receive tokens they could redeem for a prize o Exciting TV show comes on in next room • Experimenter leaves • Would they be able to resist temptation and continue with boring task? o Kids given moral self-concept training less likely to be lured away and punish their own transgressions (give back prize tokens) • Appeared to feel guilty; didn't live up to self-concept • Self-attributions produce stronger internalization than punishments (Aronfreed) o Has continuity across different situations due to self-image Studies in Naturalistic Settings • Assume that parents are primary socialization agents o Administer punishment o Model for children • Looked at correlations between parental discipline methods and degree of moral internalization • Parental discipline assessed by asking parents how they respond to transgressions or by direct observation o Direct observation • Going into the home or bringing child into the lab and seeing what they do • Moral internalization assessed by parental reports of child behaviours or experimentally (e.g., forbidden toy, test of cheating) o How does your child usually behave when no one is around to watch them? Parental Discipline Practices • 3 different types: o Power assertion (physical power, threats, control of resources) o Love withdrawal (acting aloof, cold, ignoring) o Induction (reasoning, usually highlighting consequences for others) • Aronfreed postulated that power assertion would lead to external orientation and reasoning and love withdrawal would lead to internalized morality o Power assertion would lead to child just trying to avoid punishment o Love withdrawal not associated with parents' continued presence o Induction provide co
More Less

Related notes for PSY414H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.