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Lecture 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY424H1
Professor
Stephanie Spielmann
Semester
Fall

Description
-understand findings, not necessarily the exact numbers -Sternberg‟s Love Triangle -Most complete healthy love consists of 3 major components: passion, commitment and intimacy -Passion -what is it? -is the most intense phase of a relationship -includes idealization of partner (focus on positive but not the negatives) -biologically driven (hormones etc) BUT there are cultural meanings.. -in north america & italy ()= a positive thing that starts a relationship -chinese language has fewer happy “lovey” kind of words, love is associated w/ sadness -Ancient Greece , passion = madness -Lovesick: Is passion insanity? -brain is kind of “sick” when we are falling in love. We experience neuro-chemical changes when fall in love that resemble psychological disorders (obsessive compulsive disorder) -experiment: track levels of serotonin in brain via blood; found that who were in the passionate stage -> LOW levels of serotonin in comparison to the controls (just like the patients w/ OCD) (controls weren‟t in the passionate stage). So as we go through process of falling in love, we experience it like an “unhealthy” disorder -What leads to attraction? -Target Factors: -although other factors are important, physical attractiveness -> the BEST predictor of attraction -Experiment: college students -> go to a dance party, randomly assigned date. Before the dance filled out questionnaire -> attractiveness rated by the researchers. Attractiveness was the best predictor of how much they liked their date, if they wanted to see their date again & etc. This was true for BOTH men and women in the student -What is physically attractive? -there some features that are found attractive universally -symmetry -> if are, tend to be smarter, healthier, more fertile etc... -averageness (proportional; no extreme or unusual features) -more faces that are averaged together = more attractive -more averaged = more symmetrical = more attractive -more averaged = larger gene pool => more resistant to diseases -Sex specific facial features -women: characteristics that are more representative of “femininity” (baby face), maturity -men: masculinity BUT women prefer a mix rather than being on extreme end -we know its universal and biological because babies (3mths -> so havent had a lot of exposure to social norms etc) gaze more at what we would at attractive faces & these findings are found across cultures -men care more about the waist to hip ratios and the ratios are more culturally determined -in cultures that are LESS egalitarian, these ratios are more important (Greece & Japan) but in more egalitarian cultures -> these ratios are more important -men prefer larger breasts, women prefer broader shoulders & taller men over shorter men -Attractive personality -some personality features are more attractive than others -if they have a good personality, it can go as far as to make the person more physically attractive -study: asked to rate a picture first, then were given traits of the person, then asked to tell them how much they‟d like the person as a friend, as a lover etc.. Results: photos that were paired with desirable traits = more attractive. This was true regardless of whether the photo was attractive or unattractive. Found for both women and men BUT more so for women (the desirability of the person really went down if the photo was paired w/ undesirable traits) -Ovulation -there are only a handful of days woman is fertile... -Experiment: took women who were naturally going through menstrual cycle, asked them to fill out questionnaire on a daily basis...closer they got to ovulation => felt more attractive; even wanted to go out to social events where they would meet men; would also dress better when they were closer to ovulation. On the more fertile days -> wore clothes that were more fashionable, showed more skin & that looked nicer (as indicated by the ppl who judged the photos) -when on “the pill” these effects are almost completely wiped out -suggests that way women dress -> men know when she is ovulating...they may even be able to smell it? -Experiment: smell differs based on whether or not they were ovulating...wear new t-shirt overnight...during day put it in a bag...then wore a diff. T-shirt when they weren‟t ovulating. Had men come into the lab...took a saliva sample (baseline testosterone)...then give them a shirt to smell...then took 2nd saliva sample -> test for testosterone = it was HIGHER if they had smelt shirt woman had worn during ovulation. They also found the ovulating smell more pleasant. -important because testosterone is important in mating -Experiment: strippers/lap dancer -> report menstrual cycle & how much money they made in tips...as became more and more fertile = made more money in tips VS pill users they made less money in general -Perceiver Factors: -who is attracted? What about you makes you attractive to other people? -physical un-attractive people have lower standards -comparison standard -> your expectation for what you can get out of your relationship -are lower in un-attractive people? -Experiment: Charlie‟s angel -> had male participants watch charlie angel episode OR a tav show w/ no beautiful woman. After watching, rated a pic of a non-famous person -> they rated the photo as less attractive if they had watched charlie‟s angel than if they watched the “normal” TV show...so their comparison standard had been raised. Playboy study: look at nude centrefold -> thought their wives were less attractive & felt less in love w/ their wife (so how does pornography, which is so pervasive in our society, effect our relationships?). Same effect DID NOT happen to women when they looked at “Playgirl” magazine...so this is a gender specific effect -Misattribution of Arousal -Capilano suspension bridge study: very high and somewhat ricky bridge, had an attractive woman meet men there and explain the survey & say they can call her later. She also did the same thing on a short bridge. Bridge -> create arousal -> men may attribute arousal to woman instead of the bridge. -False heart-rate feedback: Had a microphone taped to their chest. Men evaluated photos they looked at when they THOUGHT (the speaker was manipulated) their heart-rate was up as more attractive/HIGHER. These effects LASTED OVER TIME...they consistently ranked the photos that were associated w/ the change in heartbeat as higher in attractiveness -Gender differences: -women seem to be choosier when picking someone to sleep with -Men and women were approached on campus by confederates & were asked 3 questions -Gender differences in desired features -when people are req. to focus on what they want we still see similar pattern -men, even when given a small budget to chose a FEW traits, were willing to spend more on attractiveness vs women were willing to spen
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