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Lecture 2

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Stephanie Spielmann

Lecture 1 Sept. 13 2012th ← -Prof: John Vervaeke • [email protected] (put course name in subject line) • SS4093; office hours are Monday 2-5 • 416-978-7306 ← ← -No textbook -> download articles week by week ← ← th - Oct. 18 MIDTERM (45%) & TOPIC PROPOSAL (5%) • Two sections: o 1) short answer/essay - will be asked to define/explain it it also then to which issues/debates it is relevant too then explain HOW and WHY it is relevant….if do all this will get an “A”. To get an “A+” have to take a risk and make an original analysis/criticism/connection of the issue (do it WELL, if not -> will drop below an “A”) ; Choice (answer x# out of 10 questions o 2) Long argumentative essay  have to have a good thesis  intelligently and critically understand the issue at hand  May refer to short answer in essay BUT can’t refer to long essay answer  2 & a half times longer than short answer o Tests are CHALLENGING but fair…  No questions SPECIFICALLY on the readings  Just get overall argument, how the evidence was generate and how the argument fits in the bigger pictures  Concentrate on getting argument RIGHT • Topic Proposal has to be handed in o Have to right an essay but YOU choose the topic; NOT proposing an experiment…proposing a topic for a theoretical paper…being evaluated on ability to generate a topic o Write THREE paragraphs (4-5 sentences each)  1) describe/explain topic  do NOT have to have a thesis yet  2) Explain how and why how topic is relevant in this course…how it might be important to this course/research  3) How can you cover the topic well in a 3000 word essay  how is your topic not too broad or too narrow?  How does it fit into the bigger picture -> if can answer this then its not too narrow or too broad  Kind of like a structural outline  Have an APA list of at LEAST 10 independent sources (not from required reading list of course)  This is your preliminary bibliography  May not have articles ON your topic but may be relevant to your topic  Must give priority to books and articles from 1995 • Book has to be published by someone who is an accredited expert on the subject (have to search them up)  Peer reviewed journals, accredited academic sources o Have to keep topic proposal and attach it to the final essay ← ← -ESSAY • 3000 words (about 10 pgs) (100 words more or less is okay; if want to go over 3100 words need explicit permission from prof) • Have to do an abstract, title page and bibliography but NOT running head or section heads o Have a GOOD title (title, date, course code, your name and prof’s name) • Staple ONCE in the corner; then again staple topic • Theoretical, argumentative research essay; arguing a thesis -> prove your point, trying to convince o Criticize article’s evidence and theories -> integrate into your argument to establish the thesis ; consider counterpoints to your arguments and defend against them o Thesis is a claim that you want readers to believe…has to be challenging (requiring proof etc)..has to be CLEAR and CHALLENGING o GET TO THE POINT -> brevity o CAN NOT BE A REPORT!!!! ← • Due Nov. 22 2012 = MIDTERM • Final exam -> cumulative but more emphasis on stuff after the midterm ← ← Lecture 1 ← ← -common sense & intuition have lead to… • 2 metaphors that guide the scientific investigation of thinking o 1) to see thinking like action but a special kind of action…  -Thinking seems a lot like an action, we can talk about choice, motivation , goals…it makes sense to talk about failure or error the same way we do about actions…  Thinking involves processing information in a certain way…it’s a kind of search & what we are doing while we are thinking is engaging in a search (we are using directed movement (involves, choice, motivation, goals etc) through information that is connect  “Search Inference framework”  when thinking you find something and make inference based on what you find  This is tied up with the “computational model of the mind” • Cognition as a form of computation  Thinking is like action, so if we study physical behavior we will understand thinking  Tends to emphasize inference -> what you are doing when you are thinking is making an argument/making inferences. Thinking is very much like what computers do o 2) Thinking is a lot like perception  we come to realize/become aware of things were weren’t aware of before because of our thinking  a lot of our perception occurs automatically/unconsciously (kind of like sensing)  We play on the words “see” and “sense” when we are talking about cognition but we aren’t using them in the literal sense of the word  GESTALT TRADITION  Thinking s like perception and if we study perception we will get good analogies to understand thinking]  Doesn’t work with the computational framework of the mind  Prioritizes insight…thinking has a lot to do with attention -> thus the computer is a BAD model • Both are intuitive and show up in our everyday thinking…but they are DIFFERENT (active vs passive (gestalt) in some ways they. Predominant anglo-american approach is the search inference vs in Europe they use Gestalt more. This frameworks have been in a long standing debate with each other. It is very difficult to achieve a compromise between the two….but we are kind of getting to a point where there might be a third position that transcends both…. ← ← -Search Inference • Is most strongly associated with Newell and Simon. • Idea here is to understand thinking on the model of problem solving…thinking =
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