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Lecture 7

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Lecture 7 Health Stress and Exclusion Not belonging is bad for youRisk of mortality HoltLunstad et al 2010 House et al 1988Not belonging is bad for youSusceptibility to illness Cohen et al 1997prestudy questionnaire social network diversityquarantined for 5 days given nasal drops of commoncold viruscould interact with each other from a distanceeach day tested for cold symptomsThose with more diverse networks not necessarily more connections were less likely to develop the cold than those with less diverse networks Those feeling like they dont belong get sick more oftenstudy where given cold virus drops and could interact at a distance with others for 5 days and those with more networks better offSocial exclusion hurtsReactions to rejection are mediated by aspects of the physical pain system MacDonaldLeary 2005evolutionary adaptationpain components pain sensationpain affectShared psychological correlates language to describe both experiencesintroverts more reactive to social pain and physical painboth related to higher levels of sadness and depression depression predicts lower tolerance for social and physical painphysical pain partially mediates the link between hurt feelings and depressionSocial exclusion hurtsShared physiological mechanisms Eisenberger et al 2003 MacDonaldLeary 2005anterior cingulate cortex ACCneural alarm system or conflict monitorprocessing of pain affect and activated during social exclusionprefrontal cortex PFC linked with regulation of pain distress and associated with diminished distress after social exclusionoxytocinrole in parentchild bondingregulates physical pain and reduces sensitivity to social painIntroverts hurt more by social exclusion both social and physical pain which leads to sadness and depressionphysical pain partially mediates link bw hurt feelings and depression Physical solutions to social pain DeWall MacDonald et al 2010took acetaminophen or placebo daily for 3 weeksnightly report of the days hurt feelings and positive emotionsfor those taking acetaminophen hurt feelings declined over timedifference between treatment and placebo groups emerged by day 9no effect on positive emotionsfollowup study rejection experience in fMRIless activation of neural regions associated with pain affect Acetaminophen decreases hurt feelings over time but no effect on positive emotionspain areas associated in the brain less activated over time in study with acet versus placebo
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