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Lecture 8

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Lecture 8: Gender and Language Gender & language • women’s speech: judged as higher in socio-intellectual status & aesthetic quality – indirect, elaborative, affective – word use: emotion words, intensive adverbs, oppositions, negations, hedges, questions • men’s speech: judged higher in dynamism – direct, succinct, & instrumental – word use: references to quantity, judgemental adjectives, elliptical sentences, directives, I references Nonverbal communication • nonverbal channels – kinesics (body movements), vocalics/paralanguage (nonword vocal cues), physical appearance, haptics (touch), proxemics (distance), chronemics (time), artefacts (objects & environmental features) Regulating interaction • entering conversation: availability (gaze, posture, pleasant facial expression) • change of topics: postural shift • change of turn – speaker: change in pitch at end of speech segment, stretching out last word, cessation of gestures, increased gaze – listener: shift head away from speaker, audible inhalation, initiation of a gesture, overloudness in first speech segment • holding turn: ummm, uh Signalling intimacy (Anderson et al., 2006) • involvement (engaged & active) & positive affect • proxemics  less distance, more forward lean, body orientation, matching horizontal plane • haptics  esp. vulnerable areas such as the face or neck • kinesics  synchronized body movements, gestures, & facial expressions, eye contact • vocalic  matching vocal cues, more variation in pitch (high for women, low for men) • chronemics  time spent together Women’s flirtation • women’s gestures (Moore, 1985) – glances, head toss/hair flip, neck presentation, lip lick, smiling, coy smile – evidence for eyebrow flash, dropping/turning head, sideways glance cross- culturally (Trost & Alberts, 1998) – more gestures promoted male approach, stronger effect than attractiveness Men’s flirtation • signals of dominance? – successful contact predicted by more glancing, space maximization gestures, fewer closed body movements, & intrasexual touching (Renninger et al., 2004) Mixed signals from women? evolutionary account (Grammer et al., 2004)  choosier sex should control interaction and unpredictable behaviour hides intent • men view flirtation as signalling more positivity than women (Moore, 2002) – skirt hike, lip lick, lean forward, nod, hair flip/head toss, gaze, object caress, show palms, short glance, primp rated more positively by men – men appeared accurate for smile, laugh, touch, & coy smile – look at ceiling, yawn, look away, turn away rated less negatively by men – men appeared accurate for frown, negative head shake • men more likely to believe flirting motivated by sex (Henningsen, 2004) Women who initiate dates (Mongeau et al., 1998) • initiator seen as more sexually interested • women who initiate or hint overtly seen as more casual dater & more sexually active • men expect more sexual activity on female initiated dates – date rape seen as less unjustifiable – female initiated first dates involve less sexual activity Conflict expressing opposing interests, views, or opinions  goals/actions that interfere with other’s goals/actions Attribution processes & conflict • highly active to explain negativity • self-serving
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