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CH9 - Carver & Scheier summary.odt

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Jason Plaks

Origins and function of Positve and NegativeAffect:Acontrol process view Self-regulation of behaviour - Negative (discrepancy reducing) feedback loop - Acts to minimize any discernible discrepancy between current actions and the behavioural reference value, through emotion (+/- affect) Hierarchical organization of Behaviour - System concepts: highest level in the hierarchy, and are such values such as the global sense of idealized self. o Abstract and hard to define o Behaviour output consists of providing reference values at the next lower level, which is the;  Level of principle control: aspects of abstract behaviour • Such as honesty, responsibility and expedience • Qualities that can manifest in many acts o Programs: concrete activities  Made up of movement sequences: executed all-at-a-piece, automatic rather than effortful - The importance of a lower level reference value is a product of the degree to which the attainment of higher levels are successful - The sequence of interruption and expectancy assessment can be initiated through frustration (an obstacle to goal attainment) or anxiety (an ongoing action is in some way threatening) - Expectancy assessment also relies heavily on memories of prior experiences Expectancies and Affect - When expectancies are favourable = positive feelings - When expectancies are unfavourable = negative feelings Meta-monitoring and emotion - Meta-monitoring: the rate of discrepancy reduction in the behavioural (monitoring) system over time; o How rapidly the discrepancy is being reduced o Another way to explain it; the meta-loop is checking on how well the action loop is doing at reducing the behavioural discrepancies that the action loop is monitoring - Reference value: an acceptable or desired rate of behavioural discrepancy reduction o If there is a discrepancy, the first is a hazy and non-verbal sense of the outcome, followed by the affect or feeling quality of positive or negativeness - When the action loop is making continuous, steady progress towards reducing its own discrepancy, but its rate of discrepancy reduction is slower than the mega- monitoring systsem’s reference value, a discrepancy exists for the meta loop. o An overshoot of discrepancy causes (brief) positive feelings which will lead them to slow their efforts, while an undershoot of discrepancy causes negative feelings. Both are to reduce discrepancy from the reference value.  Ironically then, it should be possible for a person who has a large discrepancy at the action loop to feel more positively than a person who has a small discrepancy at the action loop, if the first person is perceiving a more acceptable rate of progress than the second person. • More distant from the goal, but moving towards it at a higher velocity Changes in Rate and theAbruptness of Change - Comparable to “acceleration” - If the rate is suddenly shifted upward, it will be accompanied with positive feelings and a sense of exhilaration Reference values used in meta-monitoring - Reference values can be imposed from outside, self-imposed or derived from social comparison. - Time pressure also plays a role on the activity o When an activity has demanding time constraints, the meta-level reference value used necessarily is stringent. When there is a relative lack of time pressure, a relatively lax standard is more likely to be used o For behaviour activities that people wish to have completed but have no desire to do, this is time dependent also because the rate of progress they wish for is instantaneous (reference value is very high), and because they cannot meet the standard, positive affect is nearly impossible because the reference value is unattainable.  The intensity of the affect experienced is proportional to the importance of the activity (which is usually low) – thus, experience of drudgery. Time frames for input to meta-monitoring -too short a time frame lacks details of overall experience -too long a time frame obscure meaningful changes tha
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