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CH6 - Kunda summary.odt

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Jason Plaks

The case for motivated reasoning reasoning driven by accuracy goals – this theory suggests that when people are motivated to be accurate, they expend more cognitive effort on issue-related reasoning, attend to relevant information more carefully, and process it more deeply, often using more complex rules. – Notion of satisficing (Simon, 1957) – when decision makers form aspirations as to how food an alternative they should find and terminate their search for alternative as soon as one is found that meets their level (*check accountability variable – Stigler suggests that search strategies have costs that are weighed against their benefits – Kruglanski and freund study showed – subjects motivated to be accurate (because they expected to be evaluated, expected to justify their judgments, expected their judgments to be made public, or expected their evaluations to affect the evaluated person's life) showed less of a primacy effect in impression formation, less tendency to use ethnic stereotypes in their evaluations of essay quality and less anchoring when making probability judgements. – Another study showed that subjects motivated to be accurate (because they were expected to justify their beliefs) were less susceptible to fundamental attribution error, made less extreme dispositional attributions about a target person who had little choice in a behaviour but not when the person had a high degree of choice in a behaviour – underlying message of studies – many biases and errors occur because of hasty reasoning, therefore eliminating these biases indicates more careful thinking – evidence supports that deeper processing occurs because of need for accuracy (that affect the initial encoding and processing of info, )rather than self presentational pressures – several biases are weakened and reasoning increases when need for accuracy increases Reasoning driven by directional goals Mechanisms for motivated directional bias – people do not seem to be at liberty to conclude whatever they want to conclude merely because they want to, – it is suggested that people motivated to arrive at a particular conclusion attempt to be rational and to construct a justification of their desired conclusion that would persuade a dispassionate observer – a desired conclusion is drawn up only if their evidence necessary to support it is brought up – maintaining an illusion of objectivity – illusion of objectivity – people believing that they are not being biased by their goals, that they are accessing only a subset of relevant knowledge, that they would probably access different beliefs and rules in the presence of different directional goals that they might even be capable of justifying the opposite conclusions on different occasions – the biasing role of goals is constrained by one's ability to construct a justification for the desired conclusion: people will believe what they want to believe only to the extent that reason permits – the proposed mechanisms are based on the assumption that directional goals may influence which beliefs and rules are accessed and applied on a given occasion -- evidence supports the idea that people access different beliefs and rules on different occasions: they endorse different attitudes, express different self concepts, make different social judgements, -- most evidence shows that different knowledge structures are accessed because different external, contextual cues make them differentially salient. – Pyszycynski and Greenberg's model likens the attribution process to a process of hypothesis generation and evaluation and proposed that motives may have an effect on any or all of the stages of the hypothesis-testing-sequence – that is, on the generation and evaluation of hypotheses, of inference rules, and of evidence. Biased accessing of beliefs • dissonance research – evidence that directional goals may bias reasoning comes from work carried out in the dissocnant tradition that has shown that people may bias their self- characteristic when motivated to do so --- dissonance theory suggests that counter-attitudinal behaviour tend to lead attitude change because a discrepancy between beliefs and attitude is unpleasant so people change their beliefs to match their behaviours in order to reduce that unpleasantness --- theory has been modified to suggest that dissonance is aroused only when one freely chooses to engage in behavior that has foreseeable negative consequences --- dissonance would be most effectively reduced if an attitude was adopted corresponding to behaviour – self – characterization theory– some studies suggesting that motivation may instigate biased memory search through relevant self-knowledge Kunda summary – motivation plays a role in which desired conclusion we reach – both are indicitave of motivated reasoning – accuracy goals do not always improve motivation quality? (ehck this) – social judgibility (check yzergt) – often accuracy goals lead people to conduct more cognitive processes, they led people to believe they --- tried to disantangle the idea btw believing they had more info vs.Actually having more info --- seperate mechanism why accountability can backfire b/c accountability makes you bleive you are more entitled when you actually are not --- people want to blieve they used a good process and sometimes they believe they have – kunda's sublte insight – people are clever and can make up a desired conclusion but have to bring at least some evidence to back up their point so th
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