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Lecture

CH15 - Deci and Ryan.odt

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY426H1
Professor
Jason Plaks

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Description
Intentionality and personal causation: when people believe that desired outcomes will follow reliably from certain behaviours and that they are competent to execute those behaviours Autonomy: inner endorsement of one’s actions, the sense that they emanate from oneself and are one’s own. - choice: organismic concept anchored in the sense of a fuller, more integrated functioning. - endorsed by the whole self and is experienced as action for which one is responsible The Support of Autonomy and the Control of Behaviour Intentionality and personal causation: when people believe that desired outcomes will follow reliably from certain behaviours and that they are competent to execute those behaviours Autonomy: inner endorsement of one’s actions, the sense that they emanate from oneself and are one’s own. - choice: organismic concept anchored in the sense of a fuller, more integrated functioning. - endorsed by the whole self and is experienced as action for which one is responsible Autonomy - select desired outcomes and choose how to achieve them - flexibility and the absence of pressures In contrast… Controlled - greater rigidity- even with choice, you can be ‘pawns’ to desired outcomes, even though you intend to achieve those outcomes The distinction between Autonomy-Supportive vs. Controlling (Deci & Ryan, 1980) hypothesized that autonomy supportive events and contexts would maintain or enhance intrinsic motivagtion and that controlling events and contexts would undermine intrinsic motivation. Event: a specifiable occurrence or condition relevant to the initiation and regulation of behaviour. Eg. Rewards Rewards Functional significance of control External effect that restricts self-determination Rewards have been found to undermine intrinsic motivation Tend to display less interenest and willingness to work on activity after termination of rewards than did people who had worked on the activity without receiving a reward Undermining effect Present when rewards were expected, salient, contingent on task management Performance-contingent rewards – generally been found to undermine intrinsic motivation, although they have sometimes been shown to maintain or enhance intrinsic motivation when the controlling aspect is minimized and competence cues are emphasized Threats and Deadlines Also decreases intrinsic motivation Such as avoid unpleasant noise, or imposition of deadline Evaluation and Surveillance Also undermines intrinsic motivation, regardless of surveillance by video camera or in person Tend to limit self-determination and thus reduce intrinsic motivation even when they are not accompanied by explicit rewards or punishments Choice (Zuckerman et al, 1978) when college student subjects were given a choice about which puzzles to work on, and about how much time to allot to each, they were more intrinsically motivated during a subsequent period than were no choice subjects Positive Feedback Positive competence feedback increased intrinsic motivation only under certain circumstances or for certain kinds of people Neither supports autonomy nor controls behaviour, it can enhance intrinsic motivation by affirming competence Intrinsic motivation is based on the need for competence and the need for self determination, so positive feedback will only increase intrinsic motivation when accompanied by the experience of self- determination It can also undermine intrinsic motivation by being experienced as interpersonal control Interest-Enjoyment Self reports of interest-enjoyment do appear to be related to intrinsic motivation Creativity Events that are typically controlling appear to affect creativity negatively, events that are more autonomy supportive seem to promote creativity Studies have shown that when students were offered a reward to do a creative task, their work was rated as less creative compared to those who were not offered a reward Cognitive Activity When cognitive activity is controlled (such as through an evaluative test), it is more rigid and less conceptual (perhaps with a narrow focus), than when it is self-determined Emotional Tone Controlling events tend to induce a negative emotional tone and a less favourable view of others in that situation Rewarded tutors were more critical and demanding, and children who were induced to interact with another child for a reward viewed the other child more negatively Maintenance of behaviour change When behaviour is controlled by events, behaviour tends to only persist so long as the controlling events are present Although rewards facilitated weight loss, the termination of the rewards led to the lost weight to be regained This also goes for behaviour, where personality changes will be sustained when experienced as autonomous or self-determined Behaviour undertaken when the functional significance of events is autonomy supportive has been related to: Greater interest More creativity More cognitive flexibility Better conceptual learning More positive emotional tone More persistent behaviour change (than when the functional significance of events is controlling) Interpersonal contexts: Autonomy-Supportive vs. Controlling (Deci et al,1981) Strong positive correlation between teachers’ autonomy support and children’s intrinsic motivation. Children of autonomy-supportive teachers became more intrinsically motivated relative to children of control-oriented teachers. (Ryan et al, 1983) - Compared the intrinsic motivation within two groups who had to do a test. - One group was told, “you did well”, and the other “you did well, just as you should” and were given a reward - people in the “should” condition experienced the rewards as more controlling and were less intrinsically motivated, because “should” implied performance standards Health (Langer and Rodin, 1976) People in old age homes whose self-determination was supported, by giving them greater responsibility for themselves, more opportunities to make their own choices, were found to be healthier than other residents. Because it not only gave them control, but encouraged them to take initiative and to be more autonomous and self-determining But, it is only when people learn to experience their environment as supporting self-determination. Only then will they become more autonomous (rather than merely perceiving that they have
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