Approach and Avoidance – Elliot
- People have a tendency to Approach positive stimuli, or Avoid negative stimuli. People can orient
themselves towards approach goals or avoidance goals based on their motives – the stimuli orient them
in such a way as to be attentive to one of these goals, or temperaments – the individual has a sensitivity
towards positive or negative stimuli and orient themselves towards approach or avoidance, respectively.
Avoidance goals are problematic in all levels of the behavioural hierarchy because it impedes learning
and exploration, and should be regulated on lower levels. Avoidance goals are for survival, while
approach goals are for thriving.
Beyond Pleasure and Pain – Higgins
- This article basically deals with the fact that to say that motivations are based solely on approaching
pleasure and avoiding pain is not enough. This article shows that the underlying motivations for
behaviour, other than to approach or avoid pleasure and pain, can also be promotion goals and
prevention goals. Promotion goals deal with approaching a goal in order to gain something, also dealing
with approaching the ideal self. Prevention goals deal with doing something in order to prevent losing
something, and also to approach goals of the ought self, such as responsibilities.
Achievement Goals – Grant and Dweck
- This article is about distinguishing between achievement goals into performance goals and learning
goals, and then further distinguishing performance goals into ability, outcome and normative goals.
Learning goals are more directed towards intrinsic motivation, whereas performance goals are to prove